عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
Studying the alloys of Islamic period can significantly highly position recognizing the metallurgy of this period. Relevant terminology and recognizing inter-connected compositions have always of the challenges of Islamic period metallurgy. According to scientific texts of Islamic era, there some names of alloys which are unknown yet; the reason was that during that times varieties of science such as metallurgy and making alloys, pharmacy, chemistry and other science were related to alchemy. On one hand, many of alchemists were attempting to keep their secrets, therefore gradually this subject caused that manufacturing methods of some alloys being forgotten. Therefore from each of ancient sources can obtain a little knowledge about ancient metallurgy while this information is also contradictious. This problem in some cases as serious as that scientists such as Biruni were not informed on the some alloying methods during the time. Subject matter which scientists have not paid attention to and caused most of modern metallurgic researchers which have worked about Islamic metallurgy, is to rely on some ancient sources caused many mistakes. For example, most of the researchers have mistaken three different alloys which written in Islamic sources namely ، “Sepīd-Rūy”,”Haft-jūsh” and “ Tālīghūn “. Experts take these three alloys as “white bronze”, the Copper alloy with high percent of tin; but it cannot be true and in present paper it is attempt to prove that “Sepīd-Rūy”,”Haft-jūsh” and “ Tālīghūn “ are different alloys as merely “Sepid-Rūy” can be counted as “white bronze”. But if we want To clarify alloys of this period according to written sources and modern data, one should compare written records to new archaeological data, until can exactly be concluded; a subject is aimed by the current paper and on which basis some mistakes of Islamic metallurgy have reformed. Here, in this study three current alloys and controversy named “Sepīd-Rūy”,”Haft-jūsh” and “ Tālīghūn”, which have disputed over a century, have studied exactely and comprehensively. On basis of carried out investigations, unlike the current idea these three alloys are diverse from each other as “Haft-jūsh” and “ Tālīghūn” cannot be counted as “white bronze” and “ Sepid-Rūy “ but the only alloy which can be identified as” White Bronze”. Additionally, surveying the scientific texts of Islamic period written on chemistry, many names of alloys have proved in this period which as yet have not studied. In some cases, results from new studies on the element analysis of the ancient metal-works, are proving accuracy on the ancient texts; but problem is that the researchers excluding Copper alloy whit high percent of tin which have named as “ White Bronze “, in the other cases have used the term “bronze”, whereas can by referring to the ancient texts and match them with metal works which have analyzed and present here, extract the correct names of alloys. For instance 2 alloys of this group namely, “Patrūy”, an alloy that made of copper and lead, and “Darārūy”, quadruplet alloy of copper, lead, tin, and zinc, are investigated for the first time, as new researches approve their existence. Western scientists knew “Darārūy” as quadruplet alloy but it is better known as its original label.