عنوان مقاله [English]
In this article, 62 sherds gathered during archaeological surveys of Tappeh Ghabrestan-e Darreh Shahr have studied and analyzed. The site is located at the northwest of modern Darreh Shahr city, one of the towns in Ilam province, on a natural mound, and is a graveyard related to nomadic settlements which. Tappeh Ghabrestan was discovered during the archaeological survey carried out at 2005 for first time, then, was re-surveyed at 2006, having better sampling and make clear that illegal diggers have ruined several graves. The results of indicates that very probability, Tappeh Ghabrestan had assisted in Second quarter of 3rd millennium B.C. The first half of 3rd millennium B.C. is one of the main periods in Central Zagros in which deep changes and culture transformation has happened. One of the most important dimensions of the given transformation is abrupt presentation of the monochrome painted pottery tradition of Susa IVA/Godin III, which endured more than a millennium and outspread over Central Zagros. Extension of this pottery tradition changed the Central Zagros to an independent culture region, at most of the Bronze Age. Formation quality and sudden presentation of this pottery tradition is still ambiguous, on the other hand, it is not certain that the monochrome painted pottery tradition of Susa IVA/Godin III appeared at which areas for first time. Pot-sherds from Tappeh Ghabrestan are comparable to those from Early Bronze age discovered from Kunji cave, Mir Vally, Dowl Pahn and Abdanan area graveyards and their potteries belong to second mid of Susa III period; in any case, ceramic fragments of Tappeh Ghabrestan have the most and the closest similarities with potteries from Susa III period, especially, potteries discovered from levels 13-15, in Ville Royale I (Susa IIIC). In fact, discovered material from Tappeh Ghabrestan and some graveyards such as Mir Vally and Dowl Pahn have indications of Proto–Elamite period (phases IIIB-IIIC). This tradition was dominated in southern districts of Central Zagros before the formation of the monochrome painted pottery tradition of Susa IVA/Godin III. Besides, the discovered potteries from these graveyards shows very close connections with monochrome painted pottery tradition of Susa IVA/Godin III. Collected documents indicates that Proto–Elamite influenced the southern valleys of Central Zagros and this had important role on the formation of the monochrome painted pottery tradition of Susa IVA/Godin III. It seems that this monochrome painted pottery tradition had been spread firstly, in some southern districts of Central Zagros before being expanded throughout the Central Zagros, at Susa IVA/Godin III period. The results of Belgium archaeological mission (BAMI) excavations in Pusht-i Kuh confirm this condition too. Discovered material from levels 13-15, in Ville Royale I (Susa IIIC) indicates that Susa was one of the centers with crucial role in formation of monochrome painted pottery tradition at the end of Susa III period; but we cannot confirm due to unsecure chronology. Population reduction of Susiana plain at Susa III period, is simultaneous with the appearance of numerous graveyards which are attributed to nomadic peaople at first half of 3rd millennium B.C.; existence of close connections between discovered potteries from graveyards such as Tappeh Ghabrestan, Mir Vally and Dowl Pahn on one part with Susa IIIb-c potteries and on the other part with Susa IVA/Godin III potteries and suddenly development of the monochrome painted pottery tradition at throughout of the central Zagros indicates the movement of immigrant people from Susiana to Zagros.