گفته ها و ناگفته هایی در باره باستانشناسی روند گرا

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستان

2 دانشیار دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستان

چکیده

آن‌چه نگارنده را به نگارش این مقاله واداشت به نوعی بیان اهمیت بهره‌گیری از تئوری‌ها در فعالیت‌های میدانی می‌باشد. متأسفانه یکی از رفتارهای غلط علمی که در گذشته در اروپا و امریکا صورت پذیرفته، توجه صرف در چاپ گزارش حفاری‌ها و بررسی‌هایی که هنوز در صحت و سقم نتایج آن تردید وجود دارد، بوده است؛ با این‌حال، بعدها دریافتند که صرف پرداختن به گزارش‌های میدانی مشکلی را از جوامع باستانی برطرف نمی‌کند. در طی دو دهه‌ی اخیر و در پی گسترش ارتباط باستان‌شناسان ایرانی با پیشرفت‌های علمی باستان‌شناسی خصوصاً در زمینه نظریات و چارچوب‌های فکری که جامعه باستان‌شناسی دنیا آن‌ها را در دهه‌های 60 و 70 م. تجربه کرده بودند، جامعه باستان‌شناسی ایران با حجمی وسیعی از اطلاعات علمی، روش‌ها و نظریات مواجه شدند. جالب است این اطلاعات در جوامع اروپایی و امریکایی به مرور زمان و در پی بحث‌ها و سمینارهای مختلف مطرح می‌شدند. براین اساس، طبیعی است تا باستان‌شناسانی که در این کشورها فعالیت می‌نمودند، به درک درستی از نظریات ارائه شده برسند؛ البته بحث بر سر درستی یا نادرستی نظریات نیست، منظور فهم و برخورد با این نظریات است که به مرور بوده است. در مقابل در ایران طی سال‌های اخیر باستان‌شناسان جوان و جویای علم این حجم اطلاعات را در دو یا سه منبع آن‌هم به‌صورت ترجمه جستجو نمودند. آن‌هایی هم که از زبان انگلیسی سررشته‌ای داشتند به مقالات مربوطه مراجعه می‌نمودند. در هر دو صورت به‌دلیل مواجهه ناگهانی باستان‌شناسان جوان ایرانی با مطالبی که در جریان چگونگی آن‌ها نبودند، یک سردرگمی را به‌وجود آورد؛ حتی برخی تصور می‌کردند که با آمدن یک تفکر، تفکر و یا چارچوب فکری قبلی منسوخ شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Said and Unsaid about the Processual Archaeology

نویسندگان [English]

  • fariba Mosapour Negari 1
  • Mehdi Mortazavi 2
1 Academic Member/ University of Sistan and Baluchestan
2 Associate Professor
چکیده [English]

What prompted the author to write this article was the importance of theories application in archaeological fieldworks. Unfortunately, of the mistaken activates of the past works in US and EU, is fully attention to publication of the reports of excavations and surveys, which there is still serious doubt on their accuracy;however, they understood that the reports by themselves would not solve any of the ancient societies problems. During the past two decades and the expansion of the international relationship of the Iranian archaeologists, who inherited the given behavior of their American and European colleagues, with scientific development, especially in archeology, archaeological theories and frameworks of thought that the archaeological world had already experienced during the 60s and 70s, Iranian archaeological community was faced with a large amount of scientific information, methods and theories. It is interesting to state that thiskind of discussions in European and American societies were raised over time via discussions and seminars. Accordingly, it is reasonable to archaeologists who have worked in these countries, to have a better understanding of the idea above presented. The debate is not on the verity or untruth of the theoretical frameworks, but is over the essence of  these theorization process. In contrast, in recent years young and aspiring archaeologists found this data two or even three translated sources. Those who had the English language competence referred to relevant articles. In both cases, the sudden confrontation with what young archaeologists they were created confusion. Some were thinking that byintroduction of a thought, the previous idea or mental framework has expired;or as “New Archaeology” or “Processual” has its own special class, they tried to follow up the vanguard activities. As will be explained below, all strategies on the basis of theirquestions and applications are important. Each approach has its own strengths and weaknesses as for “Processual Archaeology”. That is why “Post-Processual Archaeology” emerged, but this is not to ignore the strengths of many aspects of “Processual Archaeology”. Archaeologists should spend much of their time trying to discuss on the basics of archaeology and the most important aim is to increase our understanding of the human past;archaeologists should try to answer the ‘How’ and ‘Why’ questions on past not just ‘What”; therefore, if our goal is to know more about the human past. Traditional approaches tended to regard the objective of archaeology mainly as reconstruction piecing together. The current aim of archaeology is not only simply achieving cultural material and make some assumption of their time being, but also the progressive aim is to reconstruct the subsistence of dead people. We are eager to suggest a clear picture of the subsistence of dead people and their environmental exploitation.And we are following some questions such as the reason of life-styles, behavioral patterns and the way that the lifestyles and cultural material. To sum up, we are trying to explain the changes. There are still some archaeologists with old efficiance procedures while they are aware of the inefficiency of old procedures and have no answer of their irresponsibility. The most outcrop of the “New Archaeology” is making the mixture in between theory and practice. However, there still no contract on the implication of a further objective has been termed the reconstruction of the life ways of the people responsible for the archaeological remains. We are certainly interested in having a clear picture of how people lived, and how they exploited their environment. But we also seek to understand why they lived that way: why they had those patterns of behavior, and how their life ways and material culture came to take the form they did. We are interested, in short, in explaining change.There are still archaeologists who are using old fashions, while they know their methods are useless. They know that their methods are not able to reconstruct the past.  They are not responsible for their non-academic behaviors.  The most important issue of the New Archaeology is integration of Theory and Method in archaeology; however, there is disagreement over whether many concepts can be considered ‘theoretical’ or whether they are merely neutral techniques or methods outside the purview of theory.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Archaeology
  • Processual. Post-Processual
  • Culture-History
  • Strategy

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