عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
Bakun is one of the most important prehistoric cultures in the Fars province spanning the era 4800 B.C to 4000/3900 B.C. During this period, many changes occurred in technological developments, social and economic context and the type of the pottery and its distribution which led to a homogeneous culture throughout the Fars. Most of the Bakun studies have been focused on Kur River Basin while other areas have not been precisely surveyed. In this paper, author will try to assessment all of the Bakun sites which have been found in Fasa. Fasa is located at 29° 24″ to 28° 31″ N and 54° 15″ to 53° 20″ E in central east of Fars province. It comprising a land area of 4303/8 Km2. This county is bounded by Shiraz and Estahban in north, south to Jahrom and Zarindasht, east to Darab and from west to Sarvestan and Jahrom. Until 1956 counties of Darab, Estahban and Neiriz were districts of Fasa as it was included five Dehestan : Poshtkouh (Roniz and Jangal), Balakouh (Fasa and its villages), Shibkouh (area between Sanan and Gerbayegan), Sheshdeh and Qarebolgh and Nobandegan. Fasa now is comprised of four districts: Markazi (central) District, Shibkouh District, Sheshdeh and Qarebolagh District and Nobandegan District. Fasa also has three cities: Fasa (center of Shahrestan), Zahedshahr (center of Shibkouh), Erfanshahr or Sheshdeh (center of Sheshdeh and Qarebolagh). The Shahrestan is very mountainous with only two-fifths being characterized by flatlands laying at around 1100 m above sea level. The most important plains of Fasa are: Fasa, Nobandegan, Sheshdeh and Qarebolagh, Gerbayegan (nude land), Miyan Jangal and Shibkouh. Fasa’s climate is amongst the most temperate in the highland region. Indeed, it is considered to lie within the moderate climatic area of Fars. Its winters are moderately cold with temperatures between 1-13˚C, and hot, dry summers (22-40˚C). Fasa receives considerable seasonal precipitation, with yearly rainfall varying between 200 to 400 mm, most of which falls in winter. There are no perennial rivers in Fasa but the winter precipitation from the mountains creates seasonal streams. The first extensive archaeological survey in Fasa carried out by Aurel Stein in 1934. A more intensive archaeological survey, directed by Miroschedji was conducted in Fasa and Darab in 1971-72. About 51 prehistoric sites were found in Miroschedji’s survey which 42 sites had Bakun material. In 2009, an Iranian mission directed by Ali Asadi re-surveyed Fasa and found 26 Bakun sites. The result of these surveys shows a sharp rise in the number of 5th millennium B.C sites; as the number of sites from 15 sites in Neolithic period raised to 42 in the Bakun period. In other words, number of the sites in Bakun period were tripled. In this period most of the Fasa areas were occupied for the first time and new settlements were established. Based on current data, after Kur River Basin, most of the Bakun sites are located in Fasa district. In this paper, author make an endeavor to analysis the settlement patterns of the Bakun period in Fasa. Hence, all of the Bakun sites have been studied from various aspects such as: access to water resources, fertilize soil, vegetation, land use and elevation from sea level. It seems that accessing to water resources have had more efficient role in distribution of the sites. Fertilize soil for agriculture and vast pasture for herding, were also more effective in distribution of the Bakun sites. According to the distribution pattern of the sites, it is likely, subsistence economy have been based on the agriculture (Early and Middle Bakun period) and animal husbandry (late Bakun period).