عنوان مقاله [English]
The recognition of human settlement and making changes in ecosystems are the most important topics in landscape archaeology. The role of human-environment interaction is important as the this interactions can affect the environment and human behavior, studying the archaeological sites in their natural context real understanding the environmental potential, cultural, and economic livelihood systems of residents. According to certain limitations and potential of the spatial arrangement of species in the area is following; according to the natural geography of the region and the relationship between man and environment, most of the settlement pattern locating in different geographic zones varying from each other, and each distribution switching the location of settlements. In their analysis of spatial relationship between settlements and other factors such as roads, rivers, quality and type of land have checked. Environment and nature type defines that how they adapted with humans, it is obvious that the situation is not identical to conform a different environment. Identification of facilities and the environmental constraints shapes the human behavior. The Chamchamal plain is of the widest plains locating between the Zagros Mountains where two rivers Gamasiab and Dinavar are flowing and Great Khorasan Road lied on the east-west of the plain along rivers. In addition, on the south side of the plain, two permanent Mirage and roaring “Barnaj” and “Nojubaran” have located; the importance of the plain, especially during the beginning of sedentarism, rivers and downstream added a significant role to the of early settlements development. This system has led to the discharge these resources vary in different seasons, maximum and minimum in the spring to fall months. The average elevation above sea level is between 1300 and 1400 meters and Chamchamal Plain catchment area is inlet Dinavar 460 kilometers. In this paper, the settlement pattern of Bronze and Iron Age of the plain Chamchamal is being studied; according to the plain status, ecological potential and the dispersion of settlement in both periods has considered. Here, it was found that, during the Bronze and Iron Age, the economy was on the basis of agriculture and animal husbandry. The main characteristic of the Bronze Age Settlements of the plain, is that they mostly located in the center of the Plain close to the permanent water sources and main roads. This pattern is dependent on its core showing agricultural subsistence. During the Early Bronze and Iron Age, a greater tendency have seen in marginal areas and mountain belt as can be due to population growth, or spreading animal husbandry. Iron was often moves during the establishment of center of the Plain to the mountainous north following a linear pattern along the mountain valleys, since the life was marginalized; this, represents a change from farming to livestock and giving reliance. As a result of greater reliance on farming subsistence areas of southern margin of the basin and range area and the wider setting. The average size of each field setting area than the area of the center of the Plain and mountain ranges (northern plains) further. According to an study on the Chamchamal plain settlements, since there was not much difference in the size of two sites, the major sites have area of 0.5 to 1 hectare. Rural have probably had certain social changes have taken place after Bronze and Iron Age habitat in the hierarchy have not seen much difference.