عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
Sar-i-pul-i-Zohab is located in Kermanshah province, near Qasr-e Shirin County. Due to the strategic position which is located on the route of Silk Road, it has an important and essential role in the political changes in various ancient times. The mentioned cultural region has a long historical background and discovery of Anubanini relief as well as Parthian relief and inscriptions showing its significance.The aim of this article is to study the historical geography of Sar-i-pul-i-Zohab and its different names over time on the basis of written resources. So, the major principal sources suggest that there was a diversity in the name of this region by the passage of times and kingdoms, which include: Xala, Kaleh and Holvan. But the various names of Sar-i-pul-i-Zohab and the similarity of Holvan with other areas such as Holvan in Quhistan, Egypt and Iraq has caused disagreement among historians and geographers. Nevertheless in the reliable pre-Islamic resources like Charaxi, he mentioned to this region before the Karina (modern Kerend). Moslem geographers have frequently mentioned this region in their texts and have indicated the name of Holvan in some historical events – such as Islamic conquests. It is noted by the early Islamic period -meanwhile of capture the Al-Mada’in and Jalawla – as an abode of Yazd gird and it was located in the eastern Jalawla. The performed researches lead us to this hypothesis that the mentioned Holwan in pre-Islamic and Islamic texts matches with the geographic area of modern Sar-i-pul-i-Zohab. Anyway only according to written resources we cannot reliably reconstruct the geographical history of this area and this subject needs more archaeological surveys and researches. In fact, the geographical research of this region suggest little and limited references in order to pre-Medes periods. The mentioned relief and inscription of Anubanini is the most important and considerable written evidence which is simultaneous with Akkad period in Mesopotamia. If we neglect this evidence, we do not have any other cited written documents regarding to the region and Central Zagros. This document demonstrates that the mobility of this area in related period but we cannot determine the precise limit and geography of this cultural domain.The historical background of this city – which was called Xala in Greek – return back to the Assyrian period. In Assyrian resources, it was named Xalman or Halman .In Islamic resourses, the construction of Holwan city has been attributed to the Sassanian king, the first Qobad .The name of this region was exist in Islamic texts. At the first half of 6th century, Holwan was still active and in mobility but in the middle of this century it was damaged by great earthquakes and plundering by the Abbasid Caliph’s guards -al-Mustarshid- in 529 A.H. Therefore in 6th century, the most parts of city and in 7th century whole of it was ruined. Due to the importance of this area, it attracted the attention of many European archaeologists and explorers - such as Flandin, Olivier and Rawlinson. The existing evidences suggest that Sar-i-pul-i-Zohab had a great importance as mostly was a prosperous city which various governments (Especially pre-Islamic ones) made some efforts in order to occupy this region due to its strategic situation. This research has been accomplished on the basis of informations mentioned in historical and geographical documents as well as scholars’ studies.