عنوان مقاله [English]
Lands located in north of Alvand Mounts in Hamadan province with proper living condition including: very fertile soil, a series of continual and discontinuous rivers, springs and aqueducts, was one of the most important centers of human societies in different historical periods in Western Iran. It is approved identifying a large number of prehistory, history and Islamic sites on the plain. Zino-Abad area was identified reviewing the archaeological surveys of the Hamadan plain in 2015. Ancient Zino-Abad area was land locating in north of the “Mohajeran” city of Hamadan province. This area is located some 34 km north of the modern city of Hamadan at UTM: 39S 286189.8 3886085.31 elevated some 1670 meters above sea level. In addition, in some Islamic World Geographic books have been referred, such as Geographic book “Masaeol-Al Mamalik” of Ibn Faqih Al-Hamadani” and “Mu’jam Al-boldan” “Yaghot Hamavi”.
Zino-Abad extended over 50,000 square meters and is one of the most important centers of the plain. Since it have a large number of diverse classic potteries of various historical period. But one of its important period of settlement, was Islamic period, especially Medieval Islamic. There are a large number of variety unglazed and glazed potteries of different Islamic periods. This topic should be considered as one of the most important Islamic sites in the Plain Hamadan and Western Iran. This area has known pottery techniques for centuries by the Islamic periods for its own pot-making techniques which can be divided to two groups; one of them is relevant to pottery of first centuries. This gurop include: simple unglazed porcelain, unglazed carved, painted ceramics and “Champlevé” or “Silhouette”. The second group is relevant to Medieval Islamic pottery. This group include: unglazed molded ceramics, simple monochrome glazes in Azure and Turquoise color, under glaze painting; Ghalam Meshki and Silhouette and Sultanabad Wares and over glaze painting on Lusterware. Accessing to maximum Information, this area was systematically surveyed and the recovered material have compared to relative areas, because it locate at the brink trade trajectory. Studying materials, it was found that the simple unglazed pottery of Zino-Abad has many similarities to the pottery of this period in “Nishapur” and “Qasr-I Abu Nasr”. There some Similarities to the Underground city of “Arzanfud” and “Samen” in Hamadan. Painted potteries of this area are similar to those from “Nishapur” as well as of potteries known from Metropolitan Museum. Similar of this pottery in Hamadan was found at archaeological excavations at “Nahavand”. In terms of production techniques and furniture styles, the Medieval Islamic pottery of Zino-Abad are very similar to the great centers of pottery of this period in Iran. For example, under glaze painting (Ghalam Meshki) ceramics of this area is very similar to pottery “Sultaniye” and “Kashan”, and potteries known as Sultanabad similar to pottery samples to that of “Takht-e Soleyman” and “Bisetun”. Over glaze Painting (Lusterware) ceramics of this area are similar to those from Kashan. “Ghalam Meshki” potteries of Zino-Abad in many important areas of Hamadan been found, Such as “Ekbatana”, “Arzanfud”, “Samen” and “Quruq Bahar”. Finally, the Complex of Underground city of “Samen” in “Hamadan” is the only area where “Lusterware” ceramics have similarities to “Zino-Abad” potteries.