عنوان مقاله [English]
One of the most prominent cultures of Iranian Chalcolithic era is called Bakun which is considered as a vital stage in social- economic ground of change in the prehistoric communities of Iran in Fars. The vicinity of Fars in southern Zagros is considered as one of the richest study centers of Iran and also the Near East, stretching along Susiana plain and central plateau and several restricted plains and located along the river banks of the region and its important plains are Marvdasht and Mamsani that are appropriate to cultivate and nurture livestock and consequently settlement from distant millenniums up to now. The Bakun culture is one of the most important periods of the Chalcolithic cultures and it is an important step in the field of socio-economic Prehistoric communities of Iran. At the same time the culture of Susa I in southwestern and Cheshmeh-Ali in the central plateau is probably the origin of the formation of the first government agencies in the area. This culture represents a characterized painted buff Ware which is decorated with specific roles and conical forms can be and for the first time by Ernst Herzfeld Dual-Bacon on a Tepe some 2 km from Persepolis. In the revision and survey of Bakun of geographical restriction of Fars, an area of 226840 km was studied and consequently 62 of these sites of Fars were investigated and the potteries of Bakun were excavated from 38 sites of these revisions. In order to further study, the impact of environmental factors on the distribution pattern of settlements will have different factors associated with habitat selection further study which project was looking for. For this purpose, the role of these factors were investigated on the basis of available data, using analysis software for geographic information systems (GIS) and their relationship with the absorption of the establishment of areas in which there were Bakun Wares, were studied. It should be noted that extending the surface area of the larger number of sites in areas has not been intended. In order to analysis the settlement patterns of these areas, first of all the relationship between the settlements and the influence rate of environmental factors on their type of selection was measured. As an example the study of the geomorphologic situation of site in the dispersion pattern of sites and the dependency rate of these sites to the rate of sea level represents an increase in the extent of site with the increase of sea level and this is the fact which puts Fars vicinity in a paradox with other sites. However, other factors including distance from the riversides show a moderate model of rainfall rate which is not farfetched. The climate situation of these sites indicates aridness and semi aridness of region. So, that more than 68 percent in arid and semi-arid sites are located in Fars province. However, large centers may be better to analyze the patterns that are related to the other centers. Among 38 sites with the evidence of Bakun culture, 12 sites have an area of less than one hectare, 13 sites have an area of between 1 and 2 ha, and 5 and 8 sites between 2 and 3 and 8 sites have an area of3 hectares. However, 4 sites out of 8 areas of Marvdasht Plain have an area of more three hectares along with smaller sites. These sites are located among relatively narrow valley and smooth plains that a part of this density (lack of space) is created for the same reason. Hence, considering expanded sites that are rich in volume of findings, perhaps they can be considered as central places and influential in the region.