عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
Reign of the Seljuk dynasty (429-590 A.H.) is considered as one of the richest periods in the history of Iran in terms of the amount of innovations and artistic developments and also in the number of constructed outstanding buildings. However, previous studies of the history of the architecture of this period are mainly assigned to middle and later periods of the Seljuk dynasty. Such an approach with regard to the diversity of the remains of architectural monuments of the late 5th century and around the sixth century A.H. is natural and inevitable. Therefore, with regard to the date of construction of the oldest buildings which is the north-east dome of the Isfahan Jama mosque with the date of construction at 467 A.H.; details of developments of Iranian architecture and constructed architectural monuments during the reign of the first Seljuk rulers, Toghrol and Alp Arslan is very trivial and insignificant. Due to the destruction of outstanding architectural works from the reign of the first rulers of the Seljuk dynasty such as those which were built during the late 5th century and the beginning of the 6th century A.H., the role of second sources are very significant in reconstruction of the evolution of the architecture of the Seljuks and especially the first Seljuk rulers era. Furthermore, recognition of the history of architectural Developments of this period as the link to experiences of four centuries of Persian architecture and the emergence of brilliant architecture of the Seljuk era, can be beneficial in better understanding of the procedure which led to the construction of the great masterpieces of Iranian architecture in the late 5th and early 6th century A.H. By investigating the historical texts’ reports from the events of this period it can be realized that the major reports of written sources of the reign of Toghrol and Alp Arslan are allocated to the conquests, battles and political events of the time, therefore the main research Questions of this study are designed with regard to this fact. Evaluation of related data in texts about the architecture of this period suggests that, there are little differences, according to the number of constructed buildings, between the first Seljuk rulers era with middle and late periods of this dynasty. Despite the military nature of this government during the early rulers they have shown significant attention to the field of architecture and the destruction of the historical monuments are due to the events of latter periods such as the attack of Ghzan tribes, the Mongol invasions and the religious differences and conflicts caused in separation of this era from the architectural history of Seljuk era. Particularly the major architectural works of this period have been built in areas such as Khorasan, Ray and Arab Iraq that due to external attacks and clashes, religious conflicts, have been subject of destruction. Reports from this period indicates that the Seljuks during the beginning of their reign and even before the golden age of construction of schools and mosques at the end of the 5th century and the beginning of the 6th century A.H. in the most important cities of Iran and Iraq several buildings especially schools and mosques have been established that can be interpreted as a document to the consolidation of the ruling of the Seljuk and declaration to the rise of a new power, as well as a proof of pure devotion to religion of Seljuk and their belief in tradition, religious faith and the Abbasid Caliphate. Particularly, most of these regions previously have been occupied by Shiite Al buoy. Investigation of second sources of the Seljuk era indicates that there was a significant amount of written sources, and numerous architectural works and construction efforts during the first Seljuk rulers.