عنوان مقاله [English]
Persian Garden has been formed as a result of interaction between humans, nature and also physical space. Morever, Persian Garden is a reflection of social and cultural dimensions of a territory. Geographic location, climate, historicity, integration of natural and artificial environments has been led to mystical and cosmological order in develop of Persian garden. Therefore, the study of different insights and viewpoints is necessary in investigation of Persian gardens. Hence, some particular approaches are open to interpretation of Persian garden. The goals of this study are: First, identifying the mentioned approaches and their charecteristics; second, hypothesize a comprehensive model based on existing approaches and third, applying the constructed this model in this case study. In First step, the related literature review has been done in order to recognition the mentioned approaches and their characteristics. The results led to identify three main approaches through the literature review, includes: 1- The philosophical approach; 2- Historical approach and 3- Physio-natural approach. The garden is the witness of the initial ideas and manifestation mystical concepts in the mystical-philosophical approach which considered a figurative aspect, the transcendental and cosmological order of the garden elements. Historical approach is expressions the garden as an objective phenomenon and rely on historical documents. The focal point of historical approach is concentrating on historical features in the gardens. Therefore, the reliable historical evidence and documents are the major source of knowledge to identify and explore the past of the garden. The Physio-natural approach emphasizes on garden establishment pattern in the context, physical order, configuration of plants, water and architecture and its connection with environmental factors in the context. Also, the climate conditions are considered as one of the serious factor. In the second step, the comprehensive model was configurated based on combination of identified approaches. Normally, scholars have conducted the researches on Persian garden based on different approaches which embraces its own methodology. Restoration, regeneration and protection methods could be achieved through the review of such inquiries from the past up to present. The aforementioned methodology embraces information gathering, analysis method which it will be lead to identify suitable strategies for garden protection, restoration or regeneration. Historic gardens intertwined organization of natural and cultural values which has created a unique entity. Consequently, the recognition of gardens requires considering four main Physio-structural, social, cultural and natural dimensions. Thus, identifying historic gardens and documentation requires a comprehensive model which is repetitive of four dimensions and theirs subsidiary. The suggested model should be able to enlighten the relationship of garden with its context. It means that the model should integrate all physical, structural, cultural and historical aspects and the surrounding area in whole. Preventing serious damage to valuable historical heritage in the process of restructuring is another important consideration in this model. Therefore, suggested model is formulated based on a combination of historical and Physio-natural approaches. According the new model, historical inventory and documentation is the first step, the second step is focus on Physio-natural dimensions. The result will be integrated to determine the proper strategy for restoration of historical garden. In third step, the suggested model applied in the Historical garden of Neshat in Firouzeh city nearby ancient city of Neishabour. The historical garden of Neshat is one of the traditional gardens of Iran and dated back to the late Qajar and early Pahlavi epoch, is located three kilometers far from the Firouzeh city and 20 kilometers far from the Neishabour in the northeast of Iran. This method is performed by historical inventory through documents and historical books, old pictures survey and memories of survivors and field observations. In the following, Physio-natural survey performed. The result of historical and Physio-natural investigation is integrated. The result led create the restoration plan in order to revive and protect degraded landscape according to historical documents. Finally, the detail of restoration of garden is presented.