معماری مگارون در آناتولی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد باستان شناسی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد تهران مرکز

2 دانشیار گروه باستان شناسی دانشکده ی مرمت دانشگاه هنر اصفهان

چکیده

مگارون، گونه‌ای از انواع معماری راست‌گوشه بوده است که سده‌های متمادی به‌عنوان فرمی رایج و شاخص، در محدوده‌ی جغرافیایی شرق اروپا، غرب آسیا و به‌ویژه آناتولی مورد استفاده قرار گرفته است. میزان گستردگی جغرافیایی، دوره‌ی زمانی و ویژگی‌های کاربردی این معماری موجب شکل‌گیری دیدگاه‌ها و نظرات متفاوت و گاه متضاد پیرامون ساختار و مفاهیم مرتبط با معماری مگارون شده است؛ از آن‌جمله می‌توان به‌تعریف معماری مگارون، حوزه‌ی جغرافیایی، گستره‌ی کاربری و یا تاریخِ ابداع و استفاده از این شیوه‌ی معماری اشاره کرد. در پژوهش پیش‌رو که با بهره‌گیری از گزارش‌ها و پژوهش‌های باستان‌شناسی و برخی متون تاریخی انجام شده است، با توجه به پیشینه‌ی تاریخی و اهمیت معماری مگارون و نقش آن در تاریخ معماری حوزه‌ی آناتولی، به این پرسش پاسخ داده شده که تعریف معماری مگارون، با درنظر داشتن دیدگاهای مختلف و گاه متضاد، به چه‌صورت می‌تواند تعریف شود؟ این پژوهش با بررسی، معرفی و شرح ساختمان‌های شناسایی شده با فرم معماری مگارون در منطقه‌ی یاد شده، افزون‌بر مشخص کردن جایگاه این معماری در جغرافیای مورد نظر، مختصاتی از دوران رواج  این معماری را در اختیار قرار داده است. کهن‌ترین آثار به‌جا مانده از  مگارون‌های آناتولی، متعلق به آغاز هزاره‌ی سوم و اواخر هزاره‌ی چهارمِ قبل‌ازمیلاد هستند. دوره‌ای که این معماری رواج‌یافته و مورد استفاده قرار گرفته است، هم‌زمان با تحولات اجتماعی و فرهنگی گسترده در منطقه‌ی غرب آناتولی، اژه و کرانه‌های شرقی مدیترانه است. معماری مگارون و انواع مشتق از آن در آناتولی و سرزمین‌های پیرامون آن، مشخصاً به‌عنوان کانون‌های مذهبی و یا سیاسی (تشریفاتی)، کارگاهی و به‌ویژه مسکونی مورد استفاده قرار گرفته‌اند و بالطبع متناسب با کارکردهای متفاوت، الحاقات و ساختارهای ثانوی و متنوعی را نیز دارا بوده‌اند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Megaron Architecture in Anatolia

نویسندگان [English]

  • seyed mohammadreza ale ahmad 1
  • Farshid Iravani Ghadim 2
1 human science,Faculty of Literature and Humanities, Islamic Azad University Central Tehran Branch, Iran
2 Associate Professor Art University of Isfahan
چکیده [English]

Megaron -‏ shaped buildings are one of the specific kinds of rectangular architecture which have been used for many centuries, as a common and particular form, within a wide geographical range from West Asia to Europe. These types of buildings were built in central, east, and southeast of Europe, Anatolia, Aegean Cultural Area, and Eastern Mediterranean coast. The oldest remains of Megaron-shaped architectural structures were found in the Middle East on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea or Levant‏, in an archaeological site near the Jordan River, dating back to the 7th millennium B.C. In addition, the first remains of Megaron-shaped structures in Anatolia were found in the site of ancient Troy (the Hissarlik Hill), which dates back to the beginning of the 3rd millennium and the end of the 4th millennium B.C. The historical and cultural influence of this architectural style can be seen in the architectural traditions of classical antiquity in Greece and Roman civilizations, especially in the construction of residential houses and temples. The oldest written documentary evidence and reference about Megaron, as an architectural structure, has been identified in the Homer poems, an ancient Greek poet. There are hypotheses about the origin of the word Megaron refering it to the Semitic or Egyptian languages, but they have not provided sufficient evidence for their assumptions. Therefore, there is generally more agreement on the theory which the root of the word Megaron is Indo-European. Academic awareness and research around the first forms of this architecture have made major progress since 1870 and after archaeological excavation at west Turkey and Greece. The period in which this architecture was invented and used is synchronous with the widespread social complexity, cultural and economic changes in western Anatolian, Aegean, and Eastern Mediterranean regions. The spread of geographic extent, time period, and functional characteristics of Megaron buildings have led to the formation of different and sometimes contradictory views and opinions about the structure and concepts associated with the architecture of the Megaron.‏ This form of building and its derivatives, in Anatolia and its surrounding territories, are specifically used as religious, ritual or political centers (ceremonial), workshops, public buildings,‏ and especially residential buildings.‏ Hence, in accordance with different functions, many secondary functional structural ingredients have been created. This research was conducted because of the historical background and importance of the Megaron and its role in the history of Anatolian architecture, and is based on official archaeological reports in mentioned areas, and historical sources. It also addresses the issue that how the definition of the Megaron architecture can be redefined considering different and sometimes conflicting views. In this regard, the Megaron is usually a rectangular building or a right-corner construction divided into two sections by two lateral walls, the larger section (main hall), and the smaller one (vestibule). These features, regardless of other features, form the basic skeleton of the structure. In this regard, the Megaron type architecture is divided into two groups of single-structure and complexes. Secondary structures in this type of architecture are divided into two groups: structural extensions and non-structural extensions. In defining this architecture, we should not ignore variable criteria dependent on secondary factors. It should be considered that the Megaron architecture is not a fixed form with definite and absolute elements, but according to efficiency, the era, or geographic location, other functional parts may exist. In this research, in the Anatolian region, considering various indicators and important Megaron structures still more information exists to be explored about these structures apart from 100 and 71 buildings‏ identified, reviewed, and introduced to this date.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Anatolia
  • Architecture
  • Megaron
  • Vestibule
  • Porch

 

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