عنوان مقاله [English]
Troglodytic architecture in terms of its use has such types as residential, sheltering, infrastructural, and religious. Religious type which has a long history of this kind of architecture is used in religious buildings scattered in various regions of Iran and have been used in various historical periods. The continuity of use of this type of architecture in the religious relics, along with other factors, can be evaluated according to its specific characteristics, in terms of its responsiveness to the needs of the users. Because of the favorable temperature conditions created by these spaces, they have still been used by the users before the emergence of cooling/heating equipments. The mosque of Ghadamgah in the city of Azar Shahr, Imamzadeh Masoum Vargui in Maragheh and the sanctuary of the village of Abazar in the city of Nir are from well-known samples of troglodytic areas in the northwestern Iran. In the central region of Iran, six building around the geographical area of the historical city of Naein include the mosques of Ali Abad and Mosalla in the city of Bafran, the underground sections of the mosque of Sarkucheh Mohammadie and the underground space in the Jame’ mosques of the cities of Naein, Bafran and Neiestanak are examples of worthwhile and valuable in this type of architecture in the country. According to the studies, less research has been done so far, studying and revising these works. Therefore, the present research was done for the first time aiming to comparative analysis and also the presentation of the similarities and differentiations of the architectural forms used in these spatial spaces belonging to two different geographic regions. The study and the comparisons among three relics in Northwestern Iran and six troglodytic relics in central part of Iran (Naein County) showed that a particular form of architectural pattern can be considered in the comparative works. An underground troglodytic architecture, a linear spatial pattern along a longitudinal axis, a motorized movement consistent with the main axis, and an emphasis on the importance of the space in the spatial layout of the physical hierarchy, are among the characteristics of this common form. The spatial arrangement of these works is along with longitudinal axis, in a row in succession and repeat. The motion in this form corresponds to the main axis of the building and follows a linear pattern, along with its length, has organized a string of spaces which are distinguished in terms of size and function. Emphasising on the importance of space in this form of architecture is at the end of the spatial-hierarchical layout. In Naein Jame’ mosque, the Nistanak mosque and the Imamzadeh Masoum Vrajoy have made this emphasis on space with the lowest degree of permeability. In the examples of Abazar Nayer and Ali Abad mosque, by the end of the complex, at Ghadamghah of Aazrshahr and Masjid Mosalla with a few steps at the junction of the middle hall with the ending hall, and in the mosque of Sarkucheh with lower vaults, the emphasis is on the role and importance of the end space. The distinguishing feature of these works is their internal form. The three northwestern manuments have a circular plan and dome-shaped curved lines, while those of the central part of the Iran used in the rectangular plan with flat and right-angled form and space. Performing archaeological excavations, as well as studying on the data obtained, will acquire new information from these works which will lead to a more comprehensive and comprehensive recognition of their various dimensions.The present research, in the absence of reliable and sufficient archaeological data in these works, was attempted by comparative analysis of the two regions to explain their architecture and spatial structure, in order to gain a better understanding of these valuable cultural memorials, as well as their correct conservation.