عنوان مقاله [English]
Archaeological surveys at the Northwestern part of the Posht-i Kuh were conducted in the winter of 2016. This area that located in Chavar district, northwestern of Ilam province had been consisted of Valley systems opening onto Mesopotamia. However, the rugged and mountainous landscape of this area is inappropriate for agriculture, but rich pastures and warm climate has proposed this area as a suitable place for the winter camp of contemporaneous nomadic pastoralists. During Fourteen (14) years of archeological studies of The Belgian Archaeological Expedition at this area, many cemeteries belonging to the nomads of Bronze and Iron ages have been identified and excavated. Until recent surveys, we did not know whether this region is a mere habitat for livestock of nomads which are living in the plains around or other aspects has been taken into consideration? Also, we did not aware of history of Pre-Bronze age of this region. One of the most unexpected results of the recent surveys is the identification of the workshop place of Kall-Karim. The majority of dispersed cultural materials at the surface of the Kall-Karim is composed of wastes of production process of potteries. In this site, which is far away from the settlement centers, it has been seen the only baked potteries and no evidences of the production of pottery was discovered. Therefore, the process of shaping and decorating of potteries has been probably carried out elsewhere. Abundant and dense Pieces of wastage potsherds have been accumulated at the northeastern of the site. Pieces of furnace welding showing the activities of cooking minerals can be seen in all parts of Site. Much of the scattered potsherds on the surface of site comprise of the squishy or melted potsherds or potsherds that melted and stuck together as a result of high temperatures of kilns. In many cases, the thickness of the paint layer at the painted potteries is too conventional and as a result of high temperatures, paint of some pottery motifs melted and infiltrated into the ceramic’s body or stabilization have not been good. Painted motifs in some of ceramics have been drawn incompletely and required thoroughness in drawing of motifs can not be seen. In some cases, the thickness of the paint layer is not uniform and paint layer is thick on the one hand, while the other parts are diluted that has been created diverse colorful ranges. In addition to these findings, part of a clay object and a clay spindle whorl are identified. Also, no evidences of production of such objects was found on the surface. Painted decorations are monochrome and their colors is included black, red, brown, dark brown or olive green. Negative decorations can be seen on many potteries. The most of distinctive painted decorations are geometrical that is composed of pendant loops beneath the rims, diagonal lines, multiple zigzags, ladder motif, dotted circles motifs, interrupted wavy lines, continuous wavy lines between parallel lines, vertical lines, rows of dotes between parallel lines and horizontal lines upon or beneath the rims or above the basses. Only an Animal motif is used on one sherd. Typological and stylistics studies and also comparisons with the discovered potteries assemblages of surrounding areas is shown that Kall-Karim has settled before the Bronze age. The deposits of this Site belong to Ubaid 2-3 Period and therefore, Kall-Karim has been acted within the framework of the Mesopotamian cultures. The frequency and ease of access to fuel needed for Pottery kilns is one of the main factors in the formation of Kall-Karim in this area being far from the settlement centers. In this situation, environmental pollutions that is come from the activity of the kilns have been away from settlements too.