عنوان مقاله [English]
The Ware are considered as the best cultural criteria in identifying and recognizing families and communities, due to different reasons such as being productive and importing and their application in business goods transportation, and are of great importance in studying various parts of a regional culture on the one hand, and other regional cultures on the other hand; The Clinky ware is a type of local and common creativity and innovation of Parthians in the western part of Iran, which emerged in the middle ages (from about 150 B.C. to the late of first century A.D.) and was extended to the other regions during later Years. In this study, according to the 200 Clinky ware pieces obtained from 36 Parthian areas, 36 earthenware pieces were selected, which had desirable conditions in order to perform given experiments with appropriate distribution range in the Central Zagros cultural domain (Kermanshah, Ilam, Lorestan, Hamedan, Kurdestan and Zanjan). Since the data contains information about the given piece and could not be solely considered as a perfect archeological evidence. Hence in this study, it has been attempted to provide scientific answers regarding the source and structure of these Potteties by carrying out different field, experimental and component parting analyses of these wares (using FT-IR, XRF, XRD, EDX methods) in order to obtain new information and interpretable evidences, and also to answer archaeological questions and theories of the Parthian Period. According to the proper distribution area of current data and the extent of research, the same similarity was observed in terms of elements and components based on the four experimental FT-IR, XRD, EDX, XRF methods. The accuracy of above tests was verified based on the multiple experiments and their comparison with each other and the observation of similar results. Concerning the mineralogy experiments, it can be concluded that the origin of the soil used in the making of studied earthenwares is the oxidization and the erosion of volcanic and transformed stones in Sanandaj-Sirjan region which extends from the north to the south. The profound amount of Muscovite in Schist and Granite and also the production of the main elements of quartz and Ilite originates from volcanic and the active magmatism of this region. Also, the existence of active magmatism in over thrust Zagros (Ilam and Kermanshah) which is located at the meeting point of Zagros zone and Sanandaj-Sirjan and includes under water volcanic activities during the Mesozoic era along with Ophiolites of Neiriz and Kermanshah, shows a strong volcanic activity and transformation that has the potentials of forming elements obtained from these analyses. Therefore, the soil of this region is similar to the soil observed in Sanandaj-Sirjan zone. In this regard, the presence of Talc can result from both the contact of penetrable igneous masses with Dolomite present in Zagros and contact metamorphism of penetrable igneous rocks in Zagros and Sanandaj-Sirjan. However, with respect to the great amount of penetrable igneous rocks and metamorphism in the studied region and the evaluation of clay elements, the biggest part of the soil used in Clinky wares is from Sanandaj-Sirjan zone. Based on all experiments, we could conclude that the technology of producing Clinky wares is similar in the region and the slight difference is due to the furnace conditions and raw materials. There is no phase difference between gray layer and earthenware surface that implicates on the smoothness of the applied paste in earthenware. Cooking temperature of earthenwares was appropriate and is predicted to be more than about 900°C in the environment. The soil used in making earthenwares was desirable and included Kaolinite clay with iron impurities along with other soil Encklozins including mica and calcite. Overall, what is understood from these diagrams is an indicator of rich textures of Clinky ware silica with some carbonate which categorizes this typical earthenware in cilica clay group.