عنوان مقاله [English]
Yazd Jameh Mosque is one of the most important historical buildings of the country. The local texts of Yazd refer to the formation of this mosque during different periods, that some sections are completed or added to which in each period. Maxime Siroux is one of the first individuals carried out a comprehensive research on this building. He presents four periods for formation of the first mosque building that contradicts the statements of archaeological texts and data. Therefore, this research attempts to review the historical period of construction of this building. In order to achieve this purpose, library studies and collection of the historical information, especially from the local texts were addressed and then the data resulted from the archaeological excavations were analyzed along with historical texts. The most important questions are: 1. Is it possible to prove the presence of a fire temple in the mosque place? 2. Given the available data, which period the Yazd Jameh Mosque returns to? The results of archaeological excavations show that there is no evidence that there has been a fire temple in the basement of building of the Jameh mosque of Yazd; three construction periods can also be considered for this building; In the first period, Aladdoleh Kalanjar tried to build a mosque that is mentioned in the Yazd texts as the both ancient (Atiq) mosque and the old mosque. In the second period, Aladdoleh Garshasb added some extensions to the mosque constructed by Aladdoleh; this led him to be introduced as one of the constructors in the local texts. In the third part, a condominium for girls was built alongside the old or the ancient mosque, and the constructors also built a monument next to which for their burial, which is also available today.
Keywords: Jameh Mosque of Yazd, The Mosque Dateline, Local Texts and Resources, Archeological Evidences, Poetry.
Introduction & Method
Jameh Mosque of Yazd is one of the most important historical buildings of Yazd city. There are many ambiguities about the situation and the early periods of construction of it, as there are contradictions, in some aspects, in the local texts in this regard. The repairs made in the 1330s are another factor provoking the existing ambiguities, that no detailed report on which is presented, in addition that some parts of the mosque were eliminated completely, which seemed to be older than the rest. This research attempts to review the periodization of construction of the first buildings of the Jameh Mosque by the historical-analytical-descriptive method. Therefore, the following questions have been raised: 1. Is it possible to prove the presence of a fire temple in the mosque place? 2. Given the archeological evidences and the local texts in Yazd as well, which period the the Yazd Jameh Mosque early construction returns to? One of the comprehensive researches about the Jameh Mosque in Yazd is the Maxime Siroux’s treatise, due to the destruction of the early mosque’s buildings, it can be a great help in understanding the mentioned works. He proposed four periods for construction of the early Jameh mosque buildings in Yazd. According to his periodization, in the first period there was a fire temple of the Sassanid period at the current position of the mosque and in the Gonbad Khane section, which was completely destroyed in the first century AH and after the arrival of the Muslims. He expresses this view according to the oral tradition commonly used by people. In the second period, a mosque with a Boomosllim plan is built in this current position. He stated that its revolution and construction dates back to the era of Laith Saffari. The mosque extended during Kakuyids, which can be considered as the mosque’s third construction period. In the forth proposed period, daughters of Faramarz ibn Ali Garshasb built a condominium next to the Kakuyid mosque and created a monument beside which for their burial that until the 9th century AH. But this period cannot be accepted according to the evidence and the statements of local texts as well.
The process of formation of the Jameh mosque with respect to the historical texts
According to local texts, the first ruler of Kakuyids is Aladdoleh Kalanjar. He had four colonels who built the Jumea (Friday) Mosque in the city; the writer mentions the mosque building as well, but introduces the Aladdoleh Kalanjar as the mosque constructor. Except the old Jumea (Friday) Mosque, local texts of Yazd address another mosque that was built by Aladdoleh Garshasb ebne Faramarz enbe sultan Aladdoleh Kalanjar which was known as the ancient (Atiq) mosque. This mosque was persistent and used by the people until the Safavid period. The writer also points to the three doors to enter the mosque. He also notes that the ancient mosque and the new mosque, later established by Sayed Roknaldin, were connected to each other. Here, some points are worth mentioning:
1. As the writer points out, the ancient mosque had three doors, each of which was known as a name.
2. With the careful observation in the local texts, it can be seen that the both ancient and old Jameh mosques refer to the same building. Mostofi Bafqi attributes the construction of the old Juma mosque to Aladdoleh Garshasb, but he points out that this mosque is also famous for the ancient (Atiq) mosque. In another place, he stated Aladdoleh Kalanjar as the constructor of the same ancient Jameh mosque. In addition to attributing the construction of the mosque to Aladdoleh Garshasb, the writer refers to the construction of a monument that is located next to the old Jameh mosque and introduces Aladdoleh Kalanjar as the mosque’s constructor. He made the same statements for the mosque constructed by Aladdoleh Garshasb, which is also known as the Atiq mosque according to him. On the Southwest front of the summer nave (shabestan), there is an area where the graves of girls are evident. Next to these graves, the remnants of this condominium can still be seen. Also, there is no evidence of Sassanid period in the archaeological remains.
The mosque of Yazd, due to its great importance, has always been of interest to the researchers, each of which somehow wants to study of one of its features. Among which, some of them have studied the history of its construction and have made many speculations about which; But their periodization can not be accepted. Because of the archaeological excavations, there was no evidence on the existence of a fire temple. Therefore, the following periodization can be suggested for the early buildings of Yazd Jameh Mosque:
The first period: In the first period, Aladdoleh Kalanjar attempts to build a mosque, possibly by his colonels; Because Ja’fari refers to the construction of the mosque by them.
Second period: The second period is a period that Aladdoleh Garshasb added some extensions to the mosque (probably between 504 and 527 AH) and expanded it; because his extensions are made in a masque that Aladdoleh Kalanjar is introduced as the constructor of which according to the the constructor’s text.
Third period: In 536 AH, the girls’ condominium was built next to the old or the ancient mosque, and the constructors also built a monument alongside which for their burial, where their graves are still in the vicinity of the newly built nave (shabestan).