عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
The Islamic period inscriptions are valuable sources for religious, political, and social thoughts of Islamic periodical architects and artists, in a way that provides valuable information about religious, social and cultural situations of their time. Yazd Mosque is one of the magnificent monuments of the Islamic period of Iran that has been the virtuousness place for the artists of this country during various Islamic periods. In the present article, the inscriptions of this mosque are examined for aesthetics and symbolism. Decorative motifs of inscriptions were identified and extracted using software and analyzed their symbolic concepts. The study on these inscriptions shows that they have been well favored, so that within themselves they conceal valuable concepts of religious thought and express them with symbolic language. In most of the inscriptions, a common and special way for making space is used, as a grid of geometric patterns that are themselves enclosed by various abstract motifs in different size. Among the decorative motifs of the inscription in this mosque, the Shamseh and circle motifs have particular importance. The combination of geometric shapes along with various types of Shamseh arouses a particular spiritual environment, and the artist, using their combination, expresses their religious beliefs. In some cases, there is a particular style in the creation of inscriptions, including the artist’s interest in creating a network of geometric patterns in the center of the motifs, that Ali and Mohammad names have been accommodated with them. The east portal inscriptions are a sample of these designs. There are certain concepts in applying the forms of geometric designs and their frequency, for example, can be pointed to using of eight blades Shamseh and eight time repeat of different geometric patterns, which probably express certain religious beliefs, including the existence of eight Paradise or the presence of the eight angels carrying the Divine Throne.
Keywords: Jam-e Mosque of Yazd, Aesthetics, Symbolism, Abstract Motifs, Geometric patterns.
Introduction & Method
The Islamic art attempts to create an environment in which human can regain his original natural worthiness. Undoubtedly, nothing can adequately reflect the mission of arts and craftsmanship in the form of decorations in architecture. Because if the form is interesting to architects and archaeologists and designers, it may not be understandable to the public, but it is the same decoration that attracts the viewer at first sight. Inscriptions, in addition to be beautiful and show the creativity of artists in creation of concinnity, they reflect the cultural, religious and social conditions of their time. In general, decorations play a major role in expressing Islamic inceptions. Creation of such works can only take place through faith in God; for this reason, the artists are created such works with utilizing all the elements of art and inspiration, and fully aware of the meanings and concepts of what they create, utilize the science of geometry and mathematics, and with such a supernatural view of nature. The basic characteristic of these forms is codification, the creation of unity and symbolic expression. Yazad Jam-e masque has been considered as the oldest architectural example imitated from it in the religious architecture of the Yazd area. The form of this mosque is composed of a dome place and a tall and long seraglio; another feature of it is the wide application of the universal arches (temples arch) in the seraglio, which are associated with the decor of the mosaic tile that is emphasized to indication of the type of architecture of this mosque. In this paper has been mentioned to inscriptions used in this mosque includes methods, concepts of inscriptions, materials and decorations. Also, in analyzing geometric, vegetative and abstract designs of inscriptions, their aesthetics and symbolism are noticed. Questions that can be asked about this can be made in the following ways: 1. what is the composition of different geometric, plant, and inscription designs for the expression of a symbolic concept? 2.What are the symbolic concepts in the drafts and themes of the inscriptions mentioned? The initial information was collected through library studies and its secondary information was compiled by field studies. Images were photographed and extracted using AutoCAD software. In this research, descriptive-analytical approach has been used to achieve the desired goals. The inscriptions used in this mosque have been identified and studied by the method of interpretive-analytical research in terms of symbolism.
The aesthetics and symbolism in Islamic art are inextricably linked to each other, and each one looks incomplete without another. Because, the beauty of any art is to the deep meanings and implications of it. Such profound meanings in Islamic art are expressed in the symbolic language of ornamentation. The first founder of the Yazd Mosque was Ala al-Dawlah, a member of the Al-e Boyah dynasty, who had been in Yazd during the Seljuk era. One of the most prominent features of the Yazd Mosque is the combination of engraving inscriptions with different geometric and vegetative patterns. The use of divine names, the names of the infallible Imams (AS) and Quranic verses are very important in these inscriptions. Square and rectangular frames, the amount of carving, the relation with other decorative elements, the location of the inscription, the accuracy of the implementation and use of a larger and important nicer against the smaller traits in the inscriptions, according to other designs are the manifestation features of the decor in this mosque. The types of inscriptions used in this mosque, like other places, include bricks, stone and tiles. The brick inscriptions of this mosque are the most significant inscriptions with small and carved surfaces. The general features of the inscriptions of this mosque that contain symbolic concepts are: The use of the eight-blade star, most closely resembling the appearance of the sun; The use of the number eight, which is the longest symbol of the sun throughout Asia, Europe, is Africa; The use of the circle’s motifs, the most complete form of geometry, in Islamic art, is the image and symbol of perfection; Writing Ali’s name and repeating it 12 times has been a sign of the Shiite beliefs of the artists and architects of this mosque; The combination of the square and the circle symbolically symbolizes the earth and the sky and Use Swastika motifs.
Decorative inscriptions of the mosque of Yazd can be considered as an important source of religious and religious thoughts by the artists of this mosque during different periods. The abstract designs in the wall of the brickworks have features that include the diversity and formality of the abstract motifs in the form of bricks, abstract motifs with general motions and away from the rules of decor, vegetable motifs And natural to the reality, the combination of aesthetic designs with the geometric and definitive patterns that the motifs have played, the difference in the levels of carving in relation to other designs, the accuracy of the execution and location of motifs, the singularity and the uniqueness of some of this Motifs Geometric designs in the walls of the mosque have the highest percentage and have been implemented in various forms. The use of a combination of geometric designs with Herbal designs has given a special effect to the inscriptions. In some cases, there is a particular style in the creation of inscriptions, including the artist’s interest in creating a network of geometric designs in the center of the roles. There are special concepts in applying geometric shapes and their frequency, for example, we can use eight-dimensional and eight-dimensional replicas of different geometric patterns.