عنوان مقاله [English]
Among the traditional arts in Sistan and Baluchistan Province, it is possible to pottery production in a hand-made manner, with the entry of industrial tools and lack of support, only a limited number of people. The present research seeks to answer the following questions: What are the features and characteristics of the pottery in the village of Holonchokan? What is the relationship between the pottery of the village of Holonchokan and the prehistoric pottery of the region in terms of the Manufacturing and motifs? What is the impact of technology development and urbanization on the pottery industry in the region today? The research method in this paper is based on the two methods of “ETHIC”, namely the objective observation of the researcher and the interpretation based on the language of science and mental imagery, and the “EMIC” Interviewing people in the village and placing it in the dynamic context of this community. In the present research, we have tried to study the manufacturing process, the intangible dimension of the organization of production as well as the continuation of pottery techniques in the Baluchistan region of Iran from the prehistoric period to the contemporary period, with the approach of the ethnography and ethnoarchaeology. Ethnographic studies show that the construction of a dish is very static, and both potters use the same technique in the Holonchokan village. Pottery, which is nowadays produced in the Holonchokan village, is made in a handmade and in a primitive manner. Today, the production of pottery in the Holonchokan, using techniques and even some of the paintings similar to those made in the 3rd millennium B.C, is among the ancient sites of the area, showing significant flexibility and continuity over time. The lack of change in production methods, should not be counted as the conservatism of potters. The answer to this is in the socio-environmental context in which the pottery is made and used.
Keywords: Handmade Pottery, Holonchokan, Ethnoarchaeology.
Introduction & Method
Ethnoarchaeology has the responsibility of communicating between past and present data and correcting interpretations. Responses to why and how human behaviors in ancient times are an archaeological task, and a proper understanding of the natural environment will respond to most of the questions about the past. Nowadays, archaeologists are trying to reconstruct human past behaviors, with the help of other sciences, such as ethnography. Ethnoarchaeolgy is one of the strategies that helps the archaeologist to be a bridge between the present and the past. Based on this, by studying the method of pottery product and investigating potter’s artists, one could hope that the answer to the question of why and how human behavior was found in the past. Pottery art in the Holonchokan Village is a kind of continuation of traditional and past pottery practices in this land. The present research seeks to answer the following questions: What are the features and characteristics of the pottery in the village of Holonchokan? What is the relationship between the pottery of the village of Holonchokan and the prehistoric pottery of the region in terms of the Manufacturing and motifs? What is the impact of technology development and urbanization on the pottery industry in the region today? In this research, firstly, with the ethnographic approach, the traditional methods of pottery Product in the Holonchokan Village in Qasr-e Qand County will be studied. The research methodology in this paper is based on the two methods of “ ETHIC “, namely the objective observation of the researcher and the interpretation based on the language of science and mental imagery, and the method of “EMIC”, to wit participation observation, interview with the people of the village and the placement of the dynamic of this society. In this research, we tried to study and interpret the ethnoarchaeology approach, the manufacturing process, the intangible dimension of the production organization as well as the continuation of Baluchistan pottery techniques from the prehistoric period to the contemporary period. The foundation for this research is the recording of pottery, observation and interviewing. In this research, the methodology of potters was closely observed and documented, as well as interviews with potters. In the end, the objects and containers made by these potters in terms of the decoration and product technique with other areas and prehistoric pottery of the area (including pottery of the Shahr-I Sokhta site) were compared and, in this way, between Static communities and dynamic societies.
In the Holonchokan Village, now two potter works are continuing. In this section, potters are evaluated with two indicators, technique and typology of pottery. The first potter, Norak Reysi, is a woman aged 70-75 whose pottery is technically and synonymous with the exact replication of the ancient pottery patterns of the region. The second potter, Ameneh Reysi, is a woman aged 40-45, who has learned pottery from her mother, a prince (from potters in the region). The technique of pottery product both are similar to each other. it should be noted that only Norak Reysi follows precisely the ancient patterns of the pottery of the area and is more Ameneh Reysi able to designs and New patterns are becoming increasingly noticeable. The pottery workshop in the Holonchokan Village is very simple and elementary. In general, the pottery workshop consists of a work room and a Kiln. Consumables of the Holonchokan Pottery Workshop include water, soil, sandstone (mineral temper), colored stones and palm bases (fueled kiln). The center for water supply, sandstone and palm bases is the Holonchokan Village, but the soil comes from a locality called Chopetak around Holonchokan. Pottery, which is nowadays produced in the Holonchokan Village, is made in a handmade and in a primitive manner. Decoration in Holonchokan pottery is simple, geometric and abstract expression. These designs are painted by women on pottery with a primitive instrument. The base of most designs of Holonchokan pottery is simple lines of different shapes and crosshatching lines and small solid circles. In view of the structure of the motifs, the similarities between the pottery that are nowadays in the Holonchokan Village in the traditional way are made with pottery of prehistoric sites such as the Shahr-I Sokhta of Zabul (Third and second millennia B.C) and the Mundigak Site of Afghanistan.
Studies on contemporary potters present a wide-ranging comparative picture. Potters, on the other hand, basically make their own products for domestic use, including limited exchanges with neighboring villages, or, on the other hand, mass-produced pottery for sale in the region or beyond. Potters often make pottery that they produce, such as cooking, storage and drinking containers. Regarding the connection between the handmade pottery of the Holonchokan Village and the prehistoric pottery of this region, it should be noted that ethnoarchaeology studies showed that the construction of highly static containers (according to prehistoric traditions The area is constructed in the primitive method, pottery), and both potters in the Holonchokan use a similar technique to make pottery, which indicates the considerable flexibility and continuity of this tradition over time. In the end, it should be noted that technological advances in the method and technique of making pottery in the Holonchokan Village did not affect, and today pottery is made in the same way as traditional. But with the advent of urbanization and the growth of technology, as well as the lack of attention, these potteries are less used, and this native and traditional art of handmade pottery is becoming obsolete.