تالارهای ستوندار حسنلو، انتشارگرایی یا نوآوری

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار گروه باستان شناسی دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

چکیده

معماری هخامنشی به استفاده از تالارهای ستوندار معروف است، ولی ساخت چنین تالارهایی در پیش از دوره‌ی هخامنشی نیز در ایران معمول بوده است. از دوره‌ی ماد در نوشیجان و گودین، بناهایی با تالار ستوندار کشف شده است؛ علاوه‌بر این، در: باباجان، زیویه، حسنلو، کردلر و بسطام نیز نظیر این ساختمان‌ها وجود دارند. در این بین، قدیمی‌ترین نمونه‌ها به حسنلو تعلق دارند که در آنجا در سه دوره‌ی پی‌درپیِ V،IVc و IVb، با تاریخ حدود 1250 تا 800 ق.م.، مجموعاً تعداد هفت ساختمانِ دارای تالار ستوندار به‌دست آمده‌اند. ویژگی مشترک اصلی این ساختمان‌ها، بخش مرکزی آن‌ها است که به شکل تالاری ستونداری ساخته می‌شد، علاوه‌بر این اجزاء و عناصر مشترک دیگری نیز در بین آن‌ها وجود دارند؛ همچون: رواق ورودی، پیشخوان، راه‌پله‌ای مارپیچ در یک‌طرف پیشخوان، اتاق‌های جانبی در اطراف تالار، ستون‌ها و سکوهای چسبیده به دیوارهای تالار و تختگاهی در مقابل ورودی تالار. به‌کارگیری این ویژگی‌های مشترک به‌مدت چند قرن در معماری حسنلو ادامه می‌یابد و منجر به شکل‌گیری سنت معماری خاصی می‌گردد. در مورد خاستگاه و الگوی اولیه‌ی این سبکِ معماری، همچنین تداوم و تحولات بعدی آن تا دوره‌ی هخامنشی، نظریات مختلفی مطرح شده است. برخی از پژوهشگران خاستگاه این سبک را در خارج از فلات ایران جستجو کرده، برخی دیگر برای آن سیر تحولی تک‌خطی و یا چندخطی در نظر گرفته‌اند، که اغلب این نظرات بر پایه‌ی «نظریه‌ی انتشارگرایی» قرار دارند. در این نوشتار، دیدگاهی متفاوت درباره‌ی شکل‌گیری این سبکِ معماری در حسنلو مطرح می‌شود. در این دیدگاه، بر پایه‌ی «نظریه‌ی نوآوری»، ساخت تالارهای ستوندار با توجه به مشترکات آن‌ها با دیگر ساختمان‌های همزمانِ فاقد تالار ستوندار در حسنلو، به‌عنوان یک نوآوریِ درونزا در معماری محلی حسنلو شناخته می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Hasanlu Columned Halls, Diffusion or Innovation

نویسنده [English]

  • Amir S. Naghshineh
Assistant Professor, Department of Archaeology in Shahid Beheshti University
چکیده [English]

The Achaemenid architecture is famous for its columned halls; however, such halls were common prior to the Achaemenid Period in Iran. Buildings with columned halls dated to Median Period were discovered in Nush-i Jan and Godin. Similar buildings were also present in Baba Jan, Ziwiye, Hasanlu, Kordlar and Bastam as well. Among these buildings, the oldest example of columned hall belongs to Hasanlu, where seven buildings including columned hall were constructed in three successive periods of Hasanlu V, IVc and IVb, dated to ca. 1250-800 B.C. The main common characteristic of these buildings is their central part, which was constructed in form of a columned hall, along with other common components and elements, such as: a portico and an anteroom in entrance, a stairway passed around a central column on a side of the anteroom, ancillary rooms situated along the sides of the hall, benches constructed on sides of the hall, columns added at the sides of the hall, raised hearth in the center of the hall, and a platform opposite the entrance of the hall. Use of these common characteristics in Hasanlu continued for about four centuries and led to formation of a particular architectural tradition. In regards to the origin and the prototype of this architectural style, as well as its continuity and subsequent changes until the Achaemenid Period, different notions were brought up. Some scholars have sought the origin of this style out of the Iranian plateau. Others have considered it as a linear or multilinear evolution. Most of these opinions are based on the basis of the theory of diffusion. The present essay brings up a different opinion about the formation of this architectural style in Hasanlu. On the basis of this view, the construction of columned halls can be taken as an internal innovation in indigenous architecture of Hasanlu, considering their common features with other contemporary buildings without a columned hall in Hasanlu.
Keywords: Hasanlu Tepe, Columned Halls, Diffusion Method, Innovation Method.
 
Introduction
In the excavations of Hasanlu, several buildings have been unearthed from the Iron Age, among which there are also seven buildings with a columned hall. These buildings belong to Periods V, IVc and IVb, dated to ca. 1250-800 B.C. The most impotent common characteristic of these buildings is their central part, which was constructed in form of a columned hall. Other main parts of these buildings include a portico at the entrance, an antechamber between the portico and the columned hall, a spiral stairway led from the antechamber to the second floor and the side rooms along the sides and back of the central hall. In addition, there are similar features in the columned halls of these buildings: the two rows of columns in the center, the columns stood at the sides, the clay benches lining along the walls, a platform set against the back wall of the hall and a central hearth. Use of these parts and features were common in most of the buildings with columned halls in Hasanlu for about four centuries. Despite the fact that over the course of these centuries’ developments in the architecture of Hasanlu’s columned halls occurred, but the basic layout of these buildings and many of its elements and components remained constant and led to formation of a particular architectural tradition.
The construction of columned halls, although had no previous history on the Iranian plateau, but was not specific to Hassanlu, and was also usual in Kurdler at the same time, and after the destruction of Hasanlu IVb settlement continued in other Iron Age centers in western Iran, such as Godin II, Noushijan and Ziwiye, then reached the peak in the architecture of the Achaemenid palaces. The presence of these buildings, as well as other examples outside the Iranian plateau, with some similarities and differences, has led to different notions about their origin. These views generally attempt to explain the origin of this architectural style based on diffusion theory or a linear evolutionary model. In this regard, the most important question of this essay is: Where is the origin of the architectural style of Hasanlu’s buildings with columned Hall? To answer this question, considering the characteristics of these buildings and comparing them with other buildings without columned hall in Hasanlu, a new perspective is proposed based on the innovative theory.
 
Discussion
In the excavation of Operation V in the Low Mound of Hasanlu, a building was discovered known as the “Artisan’s House” or the Burnt Building XIII. This building, which dated to Period IVc-b, is not large enough and does not have a columned hall, but the layout and some of its components are comparable to a building including columned hall from Period V as well as the burned building III of Period IVc. The building consists of a small portico-like entrance (closed on three sides and open on the one side) in front, a small room behind it, an almost large central room, and a narrow side room with its entrance from the central room. The general design of this building and its different parts are similar to that of the early buildings of Hasanlu including columned hall (Periods V and IVc). In fact, this building without columns and the buildings with columned hall were all built on the basis of a same layout. The building excavated in the Low Mound was a small-sized house that did not require any column in its not so wide central room, while the columned halls had larger dimensions and the use of columns was essential to cover them .In other words, the buildings with columned hall required more spacious spaces due to their public and ceremonial function, therefore their central chamber was built in the form of a large columned hall. In fact, the buildings with columned hall are a developed form of other common buildings and houses in Hasanlu, which were built for specific and likely non-residential purposes. In this explanation, using the columns to create spacious spaces is just a technical innovation within the framework of the usual architectural style in Hasanlu.
 
Conclusion
Therefore, the formation of the columned halls in Hasanlu’s architecture can be regarded as an internal innovation that gradually evolved over the centuries and led to a long-term tradition in the Iron Age architecture of Hasanlu, and contrary to diffusionism thoughts, it does not necessarily mean accepting a new architectural style from another region or community. None of the buildings with columned hall in other Iron Age centers in western Iran are exactly matched with the general layout of Hasanlu’s columned halls and do not include all of their components and details. On the other hand, they do not completely match with each other. In fact, the most important aspect of the similarity between these buildings is their columned halls and the mere use of the columned halls in these buildings is not sufficient reason to put them all in a particular style. It seems that the construction of columned halls in the late second and early first millenniums B.C. in the northwest and west of Iran was a technical innovation in response to the need for ceremonial extensive architectural spaces that have been modified in each of the centers, due to the local conditions and necessities

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Hasanlu Tepe
  • Columned Halls
  • Diffusion Method
  • Innovation Method

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