عنوان مقاله [English]
Many holy monuments & burials were built in various places of Iran. These structures which are known as Imamzad-e have special features. It also be mentioned that these Imamzad-e constructions, as a form of burial structures. In some of the cases, are the Sufi’s or some great people’s graves and burials which are respected by Muslims, as holy places and have the structure, architectural decoration. In the Fars province, there are a number of such these graves, that have the function of a monastic. However, due to lack of evidences about the date of the construction of some burials, the construction date of some places like Imamzad-e Shohada (Sultan-Ibrahim) Khorrami-DehBid is unclear. In the Fars, there are similar architectures and decorations similar to the Ilkanid era and the Timurid era. The purpose of this research, with the historical-comparative investigation, is answering some of the related questions: 1) based on the structure & decoration type of the Imamzad-e Shohada, which era does the building of Imamzad-e belong to? 2) what are the factors and features of Imamzad-e Shohada’s formation, type, and function? At the first, a survey was carried out, then based on the gained written references and based on the evidences of other similar places, and decoration of Imamazad-e Shohada was compared with existed similar architecture in the regions of Fars province and its neighbour, such as Kerman, Yazd & Isfahan. then, the results of the investigation to a number of other holy buildings, constructions, monuments & monasteries dated to the Ilkanid-Timurid era. At the end, regarding the characteristics and evidences of this Islamic holy building & its structure, decoration, feature, and form there are evidences of a monastic function in the Imamzad-e Shohada. The final results of this study also show that the Imamzad-e Shohada is related to the time of the 8 to 9 A.H.
Keywords: Fars, Khorrami-Dehbid, Imamzad-e Shohada (Sultan-Ibrahim), Monastery, Ilkhani-Timurid Architecture.
Introduction & Method
We can see a great number of mausoleums (or Boqa) and tombs In Islamic era of Iran. Some of them were a place of study, debate and residence of the religious figures and scholars, which later became their burial place after their decease in the next periods. Alongside the importance of their architectural structures and decorations, these burial structures have become a respected place, known as imamzadeh (holy shrines), to the disciples and the local people through the passage of time. There are many structures in this kind of it on the Fars province, most of them attributed to the Islamic medieval era and were places for gatherings of Sufi brotherhood known as monastery. Among them are Imamzadeh Davood-kherqe (the holy shrine) of Firooz-Abad, the mausoleum of Sheikh khalifa-Jahrom, the mausoleum of Sheikh Mohammad-Khonj and Imamzadeh Shah-Mir-Hamzeh-Bonavat. While some of these are explored and identified by the archaeologists and scholars, there are still some others remained unknown. Imamzadeh Shohada (the mausoleum of Ibrahim the Sultan) Khorami-Dehbid, given its architecture and decoration_ which, at first sight, is reminiscent of architectural works of the late Ilkhanid and Timuried period _ and also its location, is a tomb among the many others that appears to be a monastery (a place for gatherings of Sufi brotherhood). This research is conducted in response to the ambiguities about antiquity and the function of this tomb whose name is only mentioned in most of the architectural sources associated with Islamic era of Iran. Several sources have traced back the antiquity of this tomb to the Timurid and Aq-Qoyunlu periods. However, its antiquity and function have remained unknown due to the lack of evidence indicative of its construction date. Meanwhile, a very special place in Timurid period was possessed by Shirazi architects whose constructions in the governmental centers of Timurid have convinced the minds of the scholars to search the structures pertaining to this historical period and located in central areas of Iran, especially in Fars province. Having this assumption in mind, the tomb was first field- explored & studied by the authors. Then, based on the written sources, architectural structures and decorations, the tomb was compared with similar tombs located in the central areas of Iran, especially in Shiraz and the neighboring provinces including Kerman, Yazd and Isfahan. And finally, the antiquity and the function of this tomb were estimated through counting its features with other similar tombs.
The tomb of Imamzadeh Shohada is located 4 kilometers away from the south of Safa-Shahr city, Fars province, Khorami district, and in the left-side of Shiraz-Isfahan road. This tomb includes the structure of burial of Imamzadeh (figure 1) & a Chahartaqi. In the south. The structure of the tomb has two central sections and several additional sections. (Map 1) there are distinctive architectural & decorative elements in the structure of Imamzadeh Shohada such as: stone decorations, Muqarnas, inscriptions, vaults and arches. The architecture of the tomb seems to be associated with the second period of Azari style (an interval from Timurid and Torkaman period), based on the plan and decoration of building for example: moqarnas vaults, the extensions in Sols calligraphy of the inscriptions, Moaraq tiles, forms of the vaults & arches. According to detail, the structure was compared to those built during the 8-9th century A.H in the Fars region and its neighboring provinces including Kerman, Yazd, and Isfahan. Based on the similarities, this tomb was dated to 8-9th century. Regarding the function of this structure, the tomb of Imamzadeh Shohada appears to be monastery, based on the factors such as: using the terms of “Sultan” and “mausoleums”, the usual location of monastery on the sideways of a road _ which seems to be suitable for travelers’ resting camps_and also in the outside of cities, the burial grounds next to monastery, the architectural plan of monastery and their overall architectural structure, and finally the similarity to other tombs such as Imamzadeh Davood-Kherqeh of Firooz-Abad, the mausoleum of Sheikh-Khalifa-Jahrom, the mausoleum of Sheikh-Mohammad-Khonj. The results introduce the structure of Imamzadeh Shohada (Sultan Ibrahim) Khoram-Bid as a monastery belonged to a Sufi known as Ibrahim the Sultan, who lived during the eighth-ninth century A.H and had religious activities in this place.
This research is conducted in response to the ambiguities about antiquity and the function of this tomb whose name is only mentioned in most of the architectural sources associated with Islamic era of Iran. Several sources have traced back the antiquity of this tomb to the Timurid and Aq-Qoyunlu periods. According to the investigations carried out on the structure, architecture and the decorations of this tomb_including the muqarnas, mosaics, vault form, and inscriptions_this tomb evokes Azari style of Persian architecture. Through comparison with other tombs belonging to the eighth and ninth century A.H and located in Fars, Yazd, Kerman and Isfahan, it was concluded that this work of art must be associated with the Timurid-Torkamanan period. Its location in the countryside, the adjacent burial grounds, and also its resemblance to Imamzadeh Davoud-Kheqeh & the mausoleum of Sheikh Khalifa-Jahrom, this tomb appears to be a monastery. Finally, the tomb of Imamzade Shohada (Sultan Ibrahim) was introduced as a monastery pertained to a Sufi known as Ibrahim the Sultan, who lived during the 8 &9 century A.H, and became a shrine to his disciples after his death. With emphesize the centrality of Shia religion in Safavid period & devastation of the monastery became martyred.