پژوهشی بر هنر آینه‌کاری در خانه‌های قاجاری بافت تاریخی شهر یزد

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد دانشگاه

2 دانش آموخته دکتری

10.22084/nbsh.2019.14829.1658

چکیده

آینه کاری یکی از هنرهای ظریف و پرکار وابسته به معماری است که از کنار هم گذاشتن قطعات کوچک و بزرگ آینه به وجود می آید. آینه کاری معمولاً در بخش های درونی بناهای مختف از جمله اماکن متبرکه، کاخ‌ها و همچنین منازل مسکونی مورد استفاده قرار گرفته که علاوه بر بعد تزیینی دارای جنبه های مهم کاربردی نیز می باشد. اگرچه رد پای استفاده از این هنر را باید در بناهای مختلف دوره صفوی و یا حتی قبل از آن، پی گرفت؛ اماتوسعه و اوج این هنر را می توان در بناهای مختلف دوره قاجار مشاهده نمود. یزد یکی از شهرهایی است که به واسطه پابرجایی و ماندگاری بافت تاریخی آن می‌تواند در ارتباط با جنبه های مختلف هنر آینه‌کاری در خانه های دوره قاجار مورد مطالعه قرار گیرد. این پژوهش به دنبال آن است، تا به بررسی و شناسایی تکنیک ها و نقوش آینه کاری شده در این خانه ها پرداخته ؛ و همچنین جنبه های کاربردی این هنر در فضاهای مختلف آینه کاری شده را نیز ، مورد مطالعه و تجزیه تحلیل قرار دهد. با توجه به نتایج به دست آمده میتوان انچنین اذعان نمود که: که در مجموع، استفاده همزمان از دو تکنیک گچ بری بر روی آینه و آینه کاری بر روی گچ، با توجه به درصد (%58)، متداول‌ترین تکنیک در خانه‌های شهر یزد بوده است. همچنین در ارتباط با نقوش؛ اشکال منظم هندسی با %90 و نقوش ختایی با %75 ، پرکاربردترین‌؛ و نقش کاسه‌بشقابی با (%3/8)؛ کم‌کاربردترین نقوش را در خانه‌های شهر یزد به خود اختصاص داده‌اند. اتاق‌ آینه در %7/91 خانه‌ها در بخش‌های زمستان‌نشین خانه (شمالی و غربی) قرار داشته است که دارای کاربری‌های متعددی همچون استفاده از آن‌ها در فصول سرد سال و همچنین اختصاص دادن آنها به افرادی با شأن و منزلت اجتماعی بالا و یا خویشاوندان نزدیک صاحب خانه به هنگام برگزاری مراسم‌های مختلف از قبیل جشن و سرور و یا عزاداری بوده‌اند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation of Mirror works on the Qajarid houses of the historical context in Yazd

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hamid Azizi 1
  • seyed fazlollah mirdehghan 2
1 professor of university
2 phd candidate
چکیده [English]

The people of Iran have always paid great attention to fine arts, architecture and beautification of buildings. Throughout the ages, Iranian architects have used many techniques to beautify both the interior and exterior of buildings, using locally-available building materials. The result of this endeavor has produced masterpieces of Iranian architecture. When you look at the ancient buildings of Iranian architecture you can see a different type of decoration in the inner and outer part of the places. Of course theses decoration should not only been considered as a decorative arts but they have some applied important aspects that even made them necessary for buildings. Mirror work is One of the arts used extensively to usually decorate the interior of a building is with small and big pieces of mirrors. This art that seems, like other Iranian architectural inventions to be invented by the Iranian genius architectures kept moving in the post Safavid era and reached its climax at Qajar era in constructing saloons like Mirror Saloon of Golestan Palace and especially in constructing religious and holy monuments. It is one of the arts that in addition to the decorative, has also been applied aspects. It results in myriad reflections of light through these pieces of mirror, which produce a dazzling display of sparkling light. This kind of deliberate decorations, gives way to a bright and highly shining atmosphere created upon consecutive reflections of light in numerous mirror pieces. As the historical texts testify, this fine and delicate art is surely an invention of Iranian architectures. The mirror reflects the sky, water and every color and is a symbol of light and life and when a person stands in front of mirror work and see the reflections, he is a part of the work itself. The decorations developed during the Qajar period so that the presence of this art can be seen in different buildings. Yazd is one of the cities that can be associated with the use of mirror work in residential homes to be studied. Yazd is a historical city that its historical context has been remained almost intact because of some reasons like dry weather, social life during the history and some others factors that in this moment there is not enough time to clarify these reasons. However in this city we have a lot of houses along side of some others buildings like mosques, schools, bazaars and… that are intact and have nice decoration that attract tourist. There were a lot of merchants with aristocratic houses in the Qajar era that had mirror work decoration in the interior of some rooms. This study examines art mirror work in Yazd and these questions have been raised: 1. Which techniques of mirror work are used in Qajarid houses and which motifs are included? 2. What is the position of decoration mirror work in the residential architecture Qajar era? Before starting to decorated with mirrors, a designer first designed on paper then he transferred these designs onto walls, ceilings and columns using special needles. After that, pieces of mirror are glued, one by one, onto the surface of walls, ceilings, etc. According to the results , the use of stucco on mirror and mirro work on stucco together is a common technique based on 58% in these hoses. Also the Geometric and plants motifs based on 90% and 75%, are the most ones and the Kase Boshghabi motif is the less one that has been used in the houses of Yazd. Mirror rooms are placed 91/7% in the winter part of the houses(north and west), that have different uses like: use of them in the cold seasons , for some near relatives or some people in high social rank for some ceremonies like celebrities or mourning.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • City of Yazd
  • Mirror Work
  • house
  • Qajar Period