عنوان مقاله [English]
In the XIXth century, Sultāniyya plain became an important region; this importance is due to favorable climate, rich pasturage, strategical location, including proximity to Tehran and Tabriz and the borders of Ottoman Empire and Russia. Thus during this period, a large number of evidences were written that show the various aspects of Sultāniyah plain’s cultural landscape. Political condition was required that FatḥʿAlī-Shāh spent several summers in Sultāniyya, he set up an encampment and a palace near the grass or Čaman Sultāniyya. Now, this monument is destroyed completely and remained two mounds with 25 height that are called “Tepeh qaleʿh”. The analysis of historical and cultural context in which the palace was constructed and the study of its architectural structure, can help us to understand the cultural landscape of Sultāniyah in the XIXth century, and also it can be a great step to preserve the actual site or Tepeh qaleʿh. The aims of this paper are why the Qajar chosen and stayed in Sultāniyah and built such palace here, and also the analysis of architectural aspects of this building. This paper shows that the choice of Sultāniyya as a summer residence was initially linked to the military operations against Russia. Hence FatḥʿAlīShāh built a palace or a summer residence to train the army in the grass or Čaman and called it “Sepehr Barin”. This building contained several spaces that were related to the interconnected elements such as Garden, Qanat, Hamams, yards, mosque and other small constructions around it. Studying this palace beside the other contemporary buildings show that this building was not specified to the women (Haram), rather than it was constructed for political purpose. The Women’s apartment was only a part of this complex and other parts like Divan khāneh and Khalvat khāne was the places for kings and elites. .
Keywords: Sultāniyya Plain, Sultāniyya Palace, Tepeh Qaleʿh, Fatḥ Alī-Shāh, Nāṣer-al-dīn Šāh.
The Sultāniyya plain is one of the old plains which situated in north-west of Iran; the archaeological evidence show the oldest settlement there back to the Paleolithic period (Feizi, 2016:45). This region is a part of the bigger one which connected the center of Iran to its north-west so that the most crowded routes were there.
In the XIXth Century, this region had a pivotal role during the reign of Fatḥ-ʿAlī Šāh to Nāṣer-al-dīn Šāh for two reasons: firstly, the route between Tabriz, the residence of the prince (waliahd), and Capital–Tehran- was drawn through the Sultāniya plain. Secondly, it was proximate the north-western borders of Iran, near to Russia and the Ottoman Empire. Therefore, a large number of travelers, politician Men, merchants and pilgrims crossed there and discussed the region. In 1848, near the grass or Čaman, Fatḥ-ʿAlī Šāh built a palace, in Dubeux’s picture, it can be seen next to Fatḥ-ʿAlī Šāh’s Ordū. Nowadays, this palace is destroyed completely, and its remains is known as “Tapeh Qaleh”. There is little publish date on this palace, in 1976, Hambly discussed it, but this research has not treated studying the palace in much detail because it focused upon the European resource and ignored the Iranian ones. Anyway, one of the main obstacles in studying this palace is the lack of archaeological evidence, but on the other hand, the written sources can help us to find some answer about its historical context and its structure.
Based on written sources, illustrated documents and archaeological survey, this paper attempts to show the historical background which leads to building this palace and also, to argue its architectural structure and inter-connected elements which depend on it. My main reason for choosing this topic is personal interest. In the summer of 2016, one of the writer (Feizi) conducted an archaeological survey in the Sultāniyya plain, and there she was very astonished to observe that such a magnificent palace- as we saw in illustrated documents- destroyed utterly. The essay has been organized in the following way. Firstly, we study the written sources as the primary resources to address the reason for which the Qajar had chosen Čaman Sultāniyya as a temporary place to stay. All of these sources are the historical texts and travelogues of the XIXth century. Secondly, to examine the different parts of the palace, in this section, in addition to written sources, archaeological evidence –although it does not efficient- and aerial photo which has taken in 60 decades have used. In the systematic archaeological survey, the trace of the Qanāts, other building and the foundations of the different part have been determined.
The literature has emphasized the importance of the Sultāniyya plain in the XIXth century. The previous studies of Sultāniyya have only focused on the old city in the XIVth century, while in the XIXth century, the plain is regarded as an important region for political purpose and in travelogue and other written sources, we can find the precise details about its cultural landscape.
The main reason of FatḥʿAlīŠāh to choose Sultāniyya as a summer residence was conducting the war against Russia and also training the army. In the years between the wars, he spent 6 summers in 11 ones in the grass (Čaman), but even in the years that there was no war, FatḥʿAlī Šāh stayed in Sultāniyya to train the army. The first Fatḥ-ʿAlī Šāh’s residence in Sultāniyya was in 1804 with the start of war against Russia, and his last one was in 1828, this year coincided with the permission of war by Olamā (Ezn Jahad) which led to the advance of the Russia army and sign the agreement of Turkmān-chāy (Kavari Širāzī, 1380:194-614). He never returned to Sultāniyya after the war, because there was no reason to train the army there. During the residence of Fatḥ-ʿAlī Šāh in 1847-1847, a palace was built and named as “Imarat-e Sepehr Barin”. The palace consisted of several buildings which connected with various elements, including Hamam, Qanats, several small building around it and a small village that was named Sultan-Abad and located right next to it. The aerial photos and the result of archaeological survey also show that the palace consisted of several buildings and some related elements. According to written sources, this palace contained several Hamam which was situated inside and out sides the palace, several complicated yards, a pavilion (Kolah Farangi) for kings and his women to enjoys, a tower (Borj) as a safe place for king’s dormitory, an women’s house (Haram-sara) with several buildings and yards, a Divan Kaneh which was a place where king was observing maneuvers and also the camp and a Khalvat Kaneh which was probably an official meeting place of kings and the courtiers. Studying this palace beside the other contemporary buildings show that this building was not specified to the women (Haram), rather than it was constructed for political purpose. The Women’s apartment was only a part of this complex and other parts like Divan khāneh and Khalvat khāne was the places for kings and elites.