عنوان مقاله [English]
The system of Waqf not only made many of the valuable spaces and elements of cities; but also has been closely links to religious affairs to the sustainability of urban spaces over time. The Continuity of Waqf with Islam caused considerable attention from society; as in the history of the Islamic period would be seen many schools, mosques, tekyes, caravansaries, baths and markets that product of Waqf. The influence of the waqf tradition on the development of Islamic cities is that sometimes most of the buildings in some cities are public and Waqfi; this is true of Kermanshah, which indicates the emergence of numerous monuments is Waqfi. By referring to the Qajar Waqfi documents and their periodic study and classification, one can gain valuable information on the evolution of cultural and social differences of this period in Kermanshah and obviously, regardless of the socio-cultural developments, urban development in Kermanshah cannot be followed; consequently, endowments can be seen as a valuable resource in this regard. In this respect, it can be said that the more interconnected the urban elements are both physically and functionally and the closer their location is to each other, Not only will their spatial organization be more significant, but their Waqfs and associated elements will be more efficient. In Kermanshah, the tendency to the Waqf more than the preceding periods has become popular; especially more prosperity with the coming of Mohammad Ali Mirza Dolshah and Emad Al-Dawlah sons and descendants of Fat Ali shah. According to the necessity, this research intends to use historical documents such as the endowments and written works of researchers who have studied in this regard, Analyzed the important elements of architecture and urbanization in city of Kermanshah during the Qajar period. Therefore, the fundamental question of research is Waqf as a religious factor, has played what role in the development and prosperity of the city of Kermanshah during the Qajar period?
Keywords: Urban Spaces, Kermanshah City, Qajar Period, Waqf Not, Ownership.
This research has been done using a historical-analytical method; for this purpose the research resources in the form of written sources have been collected in the form of libraries. The data collected include first-hand historical documents, Waqfi documents of the monuments of the Qajar period in Kermanshah, and written works of scholars who have researched in this regard, The data are then analyzed and their conceptual coherence to formulate new ideas. Considering above issue, it is assumed with the support of the Qajar princes from the waqf system and the economic prosperity created during this period, the waqf of numerous monuments is expanding considerably, as important buildings of the city such as mosques, tekyes, shops and caravansaries have been dedicated. The Waqfs of the city of Kermanshah have played a significant role in the prosperity and development of the city during the Qajar period. During this period, Donors has devoted a lot of buildings that if we remove these buildings from the urban context of Kermanshah, virtually no remarkable building will remain. The only material presence in the form of a mosque, shrine, market or caravanserai is not important; But their significance for the city even more because of their presence as important social and economic institutions. The only positive point of the waqf situation in the Qajar period after recovering in the state of the quantity of the waqf, the removal of tax has been from the Waqfs. This situation has manifested in the city of Kermanshah. According to the information obtained from the documents of the Waqfs of Kermanshah city during the Qajar period, it was carried out in two main directions: the preservation of religion and meeting the needs of the poor people. In other words, in the implementation of religious ceremonies especially during the months of Ramazan and Muharram, all ceremonies were linked to the Waqfs. Other research results show that most of the Waqfs of Kermanshah have been carried out by Mohammad Ali Mirza Dostashah and his son Emad al Dawlah. These two princes, in pursuance of their construction goals, devoted a lot of buildings and built up the city’s prosperity and development. However, the effective existence of landowners and landlords alongside the Qajar princes is undeniable. One of the important results of the research is this The Waqf in Kermanshah in addition to building urban infrastructure such as mosque, caravanserai, bathroom, school or shop, have had important factors in creating half-time and full-time jobs. An important factor affecting the durability of Waqfi buildings in Kermanshah, is their dedication; because their revenues have been initially spent for the sustainability of the Waqfs and then for the general public. On the other hand, it became clear that waqfs were one of the main pillars of each neighborhood and finally, according to the needs of the people, their number have been increased and led to the prosperity and development of the city during the Qajar period. One of the most profitable and infrastructural structures of Kermanshah city during the Qajar period, is the water canal and aqueduct to provide citizens with drinking water. Since most of Kermanshah residents were supplied with water through the wells and the use of Qanat and ditches was limited, only one Qanat and two dugout ditches were created in the Qajar period in the neighborhoods.
Mosques are also the most abundant among religious Waqfi and religious places; these mosques, which are generally neighborhood mosques, demonstrate their importance in developing neighborhoods and creating a sense of identity and internal integration in the neighborhoods of Kermanshah during the Qajar period. Based on the information obtained from the Kermanshah city Waqfi documents of the Qajar period, consisting of five neighborhoods; Chennani neighborhood with two buildings, Faizabad with 4, Alafqaneh with 4, and Toopkhaneh (Tooye Shahr) with 5 and Barzehdamagh (Abshuran) with 14 buildings or property with the most Waqfi buildings respectively. Of these, Borzadaghmagh with 48% had the highest and Chenani with 7% the least. Most of the Waqfs of Muhammad Ali Mirzaei Dolatshah were in the Barzehdamagh neighborhood and this has led to the further development of this neighborhood over other neighborhoods. In each neighborhood of Kermanshah, Waqfs are spatially, physically, and functionally interconnected in historical context, and concentrated in neighborhoods. Forming and interconnecting generally include mosques, commercial shops, inns, Hosseiniyas and Takayas. Another important point to note is that, due to the unchangeable nature of the Waqfi monuments, most of the buildings studied in the Pahlavi period continued to exist. However, as their repairs began to diminish, especially in the market place, most of the shops and shops along the market route became warehouses. The reason for this can be attributed to the boom of Kermanshah after the Qajar period due to the loss of important business role in the market and lack of government support in repairing and building monuments, which in turn led to the passage of commercial caravans and use. Most of the monumental buildings with commercial function were reduced.