عنوان مقاله [English]
Traditional houses are important place for exposing the life style of past. Lack of recognizing and understanding the houses gradually lead houses construction into replacing by temporary house. Kermanshah is a city with rich history and historical parish had placed many of valuable houses but because of war, expansion, emigration, changing life style, the big part of issues and valuable houses was destroyed. This research explains the typology of Kermanshah historical houses in Qajar and Pahlavi Period. This formal typology includes these subjects for instance formation disciplines, space organization, relation of form, material, method of definition of space(closed space, covered space ,open space).The aim of this research is to study typology of houses for recovering valuable building and rescue them against creating un normal building. The result of this research could lead us to analyzing the historical house according to characteristic of form. This article is trying to answer these two questions; how many types are in Historical houses in Kermanshah? What are the extracted pattern in Qajar and Pahlavi Period houses? The way of gathering information is documentary- and researching way is descriptive-analytic. The result show that construction of Qajar Period house in Kermanshah are introversion and in the Late Qajar Period are introversion -extroversion and in Pahlavi Period are extroversion that this transformation was effected by many factors, for example change in the pattern of architecture, effect of west architecture and transformation of social and historical construction, in this period. Also houses with one or two or three and four yards in Qajar Period turn into one-yard house in Pahlavi Period. Omitting vestibule and transferring kitchen from basement and with having privacy yard into yard with direct relation with yard are the other changes in Pahlavi Period. Transporting stairs from corner to major axes of building is the another changes in Pahlavi Period. Decreasing the closed space and increasing opened space are the other changes in Pahlavi Period and also three types of traditional and foreign and integrative was observed.
Keywords: Traditional House, Typology, Qajar Period, Pahlavi Period, Courtyard.
Importance of typology were deduced from the progress of changes in concept and space form before Qajar Period, because of some reasons ,it accelerated .From pastime, houses were something more than shelter and spiritual aspect from building house till placing in it, that were obvious. By attending on changes in recent century, traditional house was destroyed severely. Investigation shows that there are not many study on them and complete recognition on them. Thinking on them that are based on the Iranian human needs and environment were formed, can be useful for getting Iranian residential pattern. Kermanshah city is one of historical city that with attending on number of valuable historical house in this city, doing typology of historical house for placing similar sample in one group and investigating used pattern are necessary. The necessity of doing this research include below cases. The first Kermanshah historical house were part of identify of area and they mainly were registered in the title of national monument and have condition and standard of protecting and getting pattern of Building and spacing. The second cause is that, in the case of recognizing connected concepts and choosing suitable research method and using the obtained result and comparing with contemporary needs it can lead us to designing residential units so the question of this research is to introduce typology of valuable houses in Qajar and Pahlavi Period and to recognize the characteristic of them on the base of these two questions: How many typologies are there in Kermanshah traditional house? What are the extractive pattern of Qajar and Pahlavi Period?
The number of 20 traditional houses in Kermanshah were observed at first time and then because of having the number of yards and placing the building around the yard, houses were classified and then from each classes one sample was chosen. On the whole 11sample (7sample from Qajar and 4 sample from Pahlavi Period) were selected. Then document of each house that were done manually, were crafted again. After this characteristic, which were obtain from research theory, were studied on the samples in the methods of quantity and qualified. Analysis of data had been done on the base of diagram and chart and quantity way and in the end result were done into qualified table.
This typology was done on these factors: Formal organization:11type include one yard (one side, two sides, three sides), two yards (introversion, extroversion), three yard (several un even court yard, several even court yard), four yard (introversion, extroversion) The Method of Definition Space (closed, opened, covered) In closed Space Talar-Kitchen-Rooms were studied. Rooms in historical house have 3 types. In building with 3 spaces in sides. In these types one Orossi Talar with 5 door or without Orossi Talar or with 3 doors and a small room were observed.
In building that the main side have 5 spaces, there are one Orossi Talar in middle with two stairs in two sides and two rooms in sides. In Pahlavi Period with placing one room with stairs in middle and two rooms in sides form of building were changed. Also about Talar 6 types (semi Crisscross with Orossi or without Orossi-rectangle with columned Ivan in front with or without Orossi-rectangle with Orossi-rectangle without Orossi) were seen.
In typology of kitchen 4 types were observed. (with introversion and extroversion-with separated yard-and in introversion part-in basement level-without separated yard and in introversion yard) In Opened Space pattern of Nature was studied. The result shows we have 3types. (4 little garden with pond in middle-2little garden with pond in middle- Scattered) In covered Space Ivans were considered and 7types were observed. Another factor was Space Placing.The result shows variety of space in Qajar Period is more than Pahlavi Period. The last item was typology of formal relation. Pattern of accessing to space were classified in 4 types .( placing one corridor in one side of two connected space-placing one corridor between two space-placing Ivan as entrance in front of space- placing stairs in yard in one side or two sides).
Investigation shows that valuable historical Kermanshah houses can be classified into two groups. Houses in Qajar Period and houses in Pahlavi Period. Origins in these house are close to each other. Result shows that introversion pattern turn to extroversion pattern and rate of open space were increased in Pahlavi Period. Straight access to popular space, placing private place in the high level and Ivans for all houses are others characteristic of Qajar and Pahlavi historical houses. By investigating we can find three types in Kermanshah houses.