عنوان مقاله [English]
Karim Khan's Citadel is the largest brick building in the Zandieh Complex in Shiraz, built with Karim Khan's ideas. Its courtyard landscape has evolved throughout history, which is inconsistent with the current situation. Reading its landscape changes can pave the way for a proper restoration plan and refine its current understanding of citadel architecture and its spatial-visual character. The purpose of this study is to read the developments of the citadel courtyard landscape in two parts: a) landscaping features ("planting plan", "water order" and "geometry of plots") and b) elements of architectural adjoining from Zand era to contemporary time. The method of research is "historical-interpretive". Research documents include (a) travelogues, historical documents and books, (b) historical photos from the Qajar era, (c) aerial imagery, and (d) field observations. The reading of historical photos is done using single-point and two-point perspective principles, and the resulting data is supported by overlaps. The findings show that the developments of the citadel landscape can be categorized in four periods: "Formation (Zandian)", "Transformation (Qajarian)", "De-functionalizing and demolition (Pahlavi)" and "Restoration (Islamic Republic)". The courtyard original landscape has been transformed from "Garden of the Residency" to "Yard Garden of the Late Qajar", "Court of the Prisoner" of the Pahlavi era, and finally "Orange Garden" in the present age. The original planting plan consisted of tall (plane and cedar) and short (citrus and orange) trees and flowers arranged in three lower, middle and upper eye levels. The water-supply order in the center, including ponds and fountains, has more or less maintained its structure. However, the plots have undergone changes due to both physical and non-physical intervention elements. The aesthetics of Zandian have remained in courtyard landscape until the days of Mozaffar al-Din Shah (about 140 years), and since then their visual character has been transformed and confined to the lower and middle visual levels.