عنوان مقاله [English]
The unique structure, a fortress called “Tāq” is from the ancient era of Iran, due to its unique structure and its inaccessible position, it played a key role in the decisive events of the Tabaristān. Famous figures from Manūchehr Pishdādi to Māzyār Qāren, the last Spahbed of Tabaristān, they lived in this fort and this structure has many names and forms of decoration due to its long history. But there are a lot of unknowns about the usage and the main question is, that by examining different appellations of this structure, we will find its variety usage in ancient time. It should be noted, however, that the multiple appellations, regardless of the false imagination and beliefs of the unaware of the secrets and quality of this marvelous structure, at another glance; it is related to its long history and in other words, it can be a reflection of the usage history of this structure over time, and this is the main hypothesis of the study. For the first time, to analyze the Physical changes and Usage changes of “Stronghold-Cave Spahbedān”, based on the appellations and evolution of this structure, its Variety and Usage from the beginning of the cave to the last stage of its historical life. This research method will be based on the method of library studies involving the use of historical documentation and knowledge of vocabulary Etymology and Archaeological field research and Historical geography, with an analytical approach. In reviewing the appellations of the “Stronghold-Cave Spahbedān”, link between some of these names and physical changes & Usages of this structure was identified and evidence of human use of the Paleolithic from this site to the Mithraeum, Rock Grave, Treasury and Fortress were obtained. Reviewed and introduced. so, henceforth referred to as the “Stronghold-Cave Spahbedān”.
Keywords: Stronghold-Cave Spahbedān, Tāq Fortress, Usage Changes, Etymology.
The Lāp Kamar Mount of the Eastern Alborz Mountains, includes a huge cave. That’s mostly it is considered to be the result of the “kārst” phenomenon. However, according to the authors, the use of the word “Cave” is not wrong, but it has become clear in scientific studies that this crater, despite its high and wide width, does not have much depth and it must be considered an “Vault”, dating back to the third era of geology. This vault and its surrounding structures, together, have created a mysterious fortress called Al-Tāq [Vault]. Today, it is better known as “Spāhbed Khūrshid Cave-Fortress or Spāhbedān Cave-Fortress” and is unique in the ancient structures of Iran and by continuing research activities, more protection and awareness will be at the forefront of the wonders of the world’s rock defense architecture. Spāhbedān of Tabaristan were descendants of “Qāren Pahlav” & “Sāssānid Gāwbāreh” in Savādkūh. Which had retained the imperial manifestations of ancient Iran until then and finally, in the third century AH, with the all-out Arab invasion, which led to the death of Māzyār Qāren, the last Spāhbed of Tabaristān, the era of Spāhbedān Tabaristān ended and the Spāhbedān Cave-Fortress was abandoned and the only access route to the arch was destroyed and this invincible refuge of theirs was lost in the maze of history.
Nearly 1200 years have passed since the last attempts to identify and access all the structures of the arch fort, and it is not unreasonable to put the word “discovered” on this amazing structure. Prior to this research, there was no proper knowledge of it, and the archeological community and related scientific communities in Iran and the world were not aware of the existence and manner of this architectural masterpiece of ancient Iran.
Numerous appellations, it also reflects the background of the usages of this structure over time. The main question is, which by revieww ddifferent denominations of this Structure, Will we achieve its Usages in ancient times. The research method will be based on the method of library studies and the use of historical documents and etymological Survey research and historical geography, with an analytical approach.
The first credible reports of the identification of this Cave-Castle, published by Cavemen (Moshiri, 1950), (Sanjari, 1960) and (Sheikhli, 1962). An Archaeologist; Saman Tofiq conducted the first centralized studies of this structure in 2004, which he introduced as a combination of the cave [arch] + the fort [castle] (Tofiq, 2004) and his surveys at master thesis (Tofiq, 2010) and related article (Tofiq, 2011) published.In 2015 as the Head of the project “Cave-Fortress of Spahbed Khūrshid” he carried out Historical, Archeological &Architectural Studies in two consecutive seasons, (Tofiq,2016) and also conducted additional studies of this structure in the form of a doctoral dissertation (Tofiq, 2018).
The most authoritative of these names, according to historical sources, are: “Div-e Keli [Cave of White Dave], Manūchihr Treasury, Dokān-e Sūleimān, Spāhbedān Cave, Hisn Al-Tāq [Tāq Fortress], Tāq of Darband-e Kūlā, Spāhbed Khūrshid Cave [Fortress], Tāq of Windād Hūrmazd, `Āisha Kargil-e De and Lāp-e Kamar [gap of mountain]” (Tofiq, 2016 /2:12).
For the purpose of appellation and using this fort, we investigate the prehistoric to the third century after Islam. From the remnants of the Paleolithic era to Spāhbedān Tabarestān.
We know that Caves have always been the place of intuition, the Cave-Fortress of Spāhbedān; With these characteristics, in the belief of the common people, is definitely one of the manifestations of Supernatural forces and has been used as a place of gods,Temples or Mithraeum. In prehistoric era, in Būndahishn is considered to be Faridūn Palace in the land of Patishkhwārgar, and in the ibn-e faqih narration was treasury of Manūchihr Shāh too where is the desired location.
The Cave-Fortress of Spahbedān was the center of the Iranian-Arab conflict, and the lasted battlefield from the year (839-642 AD = 21-225 AH) (Tofiq, 1397: 91).
In this article, by analyzing the background and examining the names of the cave-fortress of Spāhbedān, the connection between some of these appellations and physical changes and the use of this structure was identified and evidence of the use of Paleolithic man from this place to Mihr Temple, Rocky grave, the Treasury and the fort were obtained, investigated and identified.
Due to its usage as a fortress and shelter and the Vault or cave form of this structure, it is worth naming it with its real name, “Cave-Fortress of Spahbedān”, which according to studies is the Goldest era of this structure. On the other hand, it became clear that when Khūsrow I, appointed the Qāren House to Spahbeds of Khurāsān in 557 AD, they built or rebuilt buildings such as Darband and Gorgan walls in the northern borders of Tabaristān. Also, the structural similarity of Spahbedān Cave-Fortress with Tāq-e Kisra and the Pahlavi documents of Tabaristān discovered from this area related to Spahbeds of Qāren House” are strong evidence for this theory.