عنوان مقاله [English]
Undoubtedly, the emergence of coins is one of the most important achievements of human society. The spread of coins made the standard of trade and commerce between humans and societies clearer. The aim of the research is to study the coins of the Ilkhanid period, the patterns and visual elements used in their decorations in order to achieve communication with religion, language, script and their use in commercial and cultural exchanges. The research is based on the “substantive-theoretical” goal and the “content analysis” method and based on the iconography of Irwin Panoffsky’s views. The method of collecting information and data is “library-archives”. The research problem is: How did the decorative elements on the coin affect the culture of the Ilkhanids? The results of this study indicate that the first coins from this era have writings in the Uighur line and Mongolian language. The presence of phrases such as “La elah el- Allah” and “Mohammad Rasulullah”, along with the names of the Mughal sultans, such as “Muzeddin”, in Persian line, show how the kings of this dynasty from time to time became Muslim. Thus, the Muslim history of Ghazan Khan is clearly characterized by his coins. The first trend towards Shiite religion is also one of the other historical issues that appeared on coins. On the coins of this period, the name of the twelve Imams, especially Imam Ali (AS), is to be seen. As in previous Islamic periods, the motifs of animals and plants, along with Qur’anic inscriptions, have been used to decorate coins. In general, writings related to the Shiite and Sunni religions, geometric decorative frames consisting of circles and squares, plant motifs and animal motifs with the use of Tamgha, are the most visual representations used in Ilkhanid coins.
Keywords: Ilkhani Coins, Iconography Approach, Ilkhan Religion, Tamgha.
One of the important developments in the history of the Ilkhanid era was the Islamization of the Mongols and the transformation of the patriarchal government into a Muslim. This development was the result of a series of intellectual, political and social interactions, and different groups played a role in its implementation. Although the first Mongol rulers had a different religion, there are Islamic rites on their coins. Mongol coins of the eighteenth and late nineteenth centuries are unique in the ancient world in terms of design, shape, materials used and writing elements. The presence of the Ilkhans with their religious, Buddhist, Christian, religious tolerance in the political arena of Iran, who had their own religious and cultural beliefs. The works discussed in this study are related to a number of coins of the Ilkhanate period. The study of the visual elements of coins puts the audience on the path of changes in the style of Iranian art in this period, considering the influence of Islam on the tastes of rulers. The importance of research is that art is influenced and influenced in a two-way relationship with culture and religion.
The aim and necessity of the research: The aim of this paper is to analyze the visual elements of Ilkhanid coins with an iconographic approach in order to achieve a logical connection between the elements used in Ilkhanid coins with culture and religion during the process of describing and interpreting the motifs.
Question and Hypothesis: The answer to this question: What do the visual elements of the coins of the patriarchal period have to do with the culture and religion of the patriarchal period? It has led to this research. The research hypothesis indicates that the use of human elements according to Islamic teachings, as in previous Islamic periods, has decreased and more attention has been paid to geometric patterns, animals and plants along with Quranic inscriptions.
Research Methods: The present study covers the study of visual elements in the illustration of patriarchal coins. Various methods can be used to achieve a coherent historical structure for categorizing and introducing patterns, and answering article questions. In this study, the iconographic method was selected. By researching the coins of the patriarchal period with an iconographic approach, the connection between the theme of the work and the form emerges. On this basis, the coins of the patriarchal period are viewed as textual images.
Most of the Mongol coins are made of silver. Some of these coins depict various images of animals, such as peacocks, lions, cats, eagles and cows, the image of the cross and the inscription of Bismillah. Most of these coins were minted in the eastern part, especially in the city of Tus. Most of the decorations on the coins are inscriptions that include prayers and titles with the Kufic script engraved on the coins. The general shape of all coins of this period is circular or elliptical, in some cases the coins also have a ring-shaped section that has been added to the circular section. . In some coins, only the name of the sultan is written in Persian letters, in order to recognize the new king from the previous ruler. The name and titles of the sultan are often written in Persian words and letters. In early Islamic coins, the use of geometric patterns was limited to circles or concentric circles, and only in a few cases, such as some Al-Buwayh coins, did geometric divisions apply to coins. This use of geometric patterns increases little by little and in a limited way, creating shapes that fit the circular and small space of the coins in this era. The Tamagha, as a brand, were usually associated with a particular tribe. When a tribe was separated or divided, the new institution of the Tamagha changed. But the old symbol was still preserved. Tamagha was typically associated with the leader of that group, thus becoming a symbol and property of the aristocracy and thus inherited by their sons. As the Mongol Empire began to organize, the Tamagha became a trademark of the government and were not only a symbol of Khan’s approval and approval, but also later appeared on coins.
The importance of Ilkhani coins in recognizing the events and social events is significant. The reflection and impact of these events on the role of motifs, writings, as well as the quality of coinage, can be seen and examined. These motifs have religious themes, and on the other hand, it seems that the reflection of the image that the patriarchal king wanted to create in the minds of the audience of coins, and the visual elements, the key role in this. On Ilkhanid coins, it is generally dedicated to religious rites and the coinage of coins to inform and honor kings. In special and small cases, figurative motifs can be seen on the coins. The main motifs used on the coins are margins that enclose the inscriptions. The composition of the text is based on the shape of the main margin and is completely shaped accordingly. For the first time, coins and inscriptions were minted on coins that had nothing to do with the official religion and propagated. There are various animal and geometric patterns on the coins of this period. Animal, geometric, lion and sun symbols are among the most important motifs and motifs used in these coins.