نظریه ای درباره انتظامهای هندسیِ معماری ایران

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری معماری، گروه معماری دانشکده‌ی معماری و شهرسازی دانشگاه شهید بهشتی تهران، ایران.

2 استاد گروه معماری، دانشکده‌ی معماری و شهرسازی دانشگاه شهید بهشتی تهران، ایران

3 استادیار گروه معماری، دانشکده‌ی معماری و شهرسازی دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران.

10.22084/nbsh.2019.16813.1780

چکیده

مطالعات انجام شده در حوزۀ هندسه در معماری ایرانی بسیار دامنه­ دار و متفاوت است. در این مطالعات، هندسه به معانی گوناگون مورد نظر قرار گرفته، و تبعاً انواع مختلفی از انتظام هندسی در معماری ایران قابل شناسایی است. هر کدام از این انتظام های هندسی به طور منفرد در پیشینۀ پژوهش در معماری ایران مورد مطالعه فراوان قرار گرفته ­اند. اهمیت تبیین این انتظام های هندسی در نسبت با یکدیگر بسیار مهم و قابل توجه است و می ­تواند از بسیاری از خلط های رخ داده جلوگیری نماید.با توجه به توضیحات ارائه شده مسئله اصلی این پژوهش این است که: در آراء محققان معماری ایران، چه انواعی از انتظام هندسی را می‌توان شناسایی کرد؟ و فرضیه این پژوهش این است که انتظام های هندسی در معماری ایران، دارای اقسام و مراتب مختلفی است که تاکنون به صورت واضح و روشنی در کنار هم تبیین نشده­ اند. در این تحقیق با روش تحلیل محتوای کیفی، آراء محققان در حوزۀ هندسه مورد بررسی قرار گرفته است. انتخاب متون در این پژوهش، بر اساس انتخاب هدفمند از میان متونی که به شبکه مفاهیم پیوسته با هندسه (مقولات اولیه)، در معماری ایران مرتبط هستند انتخاب و کدگذاری اولیه شده است. سپس متون انتخابی بر اساس مشابهت های موضوعی طبقه بندی و نام گذاری شدند (مقولات محوری) و مجدداً همین مقولات محوری نیز در اساس مشابهت های موضوعی طبقه ­بندی و کدگذاری ثانویه شده ­اند. نتایج حاصل از این تحقیق نشان می ­دهد که انتظامهای هندسی موجود در معماری ایران عبارتند از؛  انتظام هندسی ابعاد انسانی، انتظام هندسی اقلیمی، انتظام هندسی نیارش، انتظام هندسی زیبایی شناسی فرمی و انتظام هندسی زیبایی­ شناسی آرایه ­ها. لازم به ذکر است که در نهایت این انتظام های هندسی در یک منظومه درهم تنیده و غیر قابل انفکاک به نام هندسه معماری ایرانی تبلور می ­یابند و لذا هدف اصلی از تبیین آنها کسب شناخت نسبت به هرکدام به صورت مجزا است که باعث تنویر ذهن و فهم ساز و کار آنها می شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

A Theory about Geometric Orders of Iranian Architecture

نویسندگان [English]

  • Saheb Mohamadianmansoor 1
  • Hadi nadimi 2
  • Zohre Tafazzoli 3
1 Ph.D. Student in Architecture, Department of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
2 Professor, Department of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Shahid Beheshti University of Tehran, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Studies conducted in the domain of Iranian architecture are extensive as well as diverse. In these studies, different meanings of geometry are considered, and consequently, a wide variety of orders of Iranian architecture can be identifiable. Extensive studies are conducted on each of these geometrical orders of Iranian architecture. The importance of elaboration on these geometrical orders in comparison to each other is of great importance and considerable. Moreover, it would be able to prevent many of the errors that occurred. Taking into account the mentioned explanations, the underlying theme of this research is that what types of geometrical orders can be recognized among the votes of Iranian architectural research? This research is based on an assumption that geometrical orders of Iranian architecture have various types and levels which are elaborated till today. In this research, the qualitative content analysis method is applied to study the votes of the researcher. Choosing texts for this research and initial coding was based on the targeted selection among texts connected to the network of consistent concepts with geometry (basic concepts) in relation to Iranian architecture. Afterwards, selected texts were classified and named based on the similarities in fields (main topics), and again, these topics are secondly classified and named based on the similarities in fields. The results obtained from the geometrical orders of Iranian architecture include Geometrical orders of Human dimensions, climatic geometrical orders, geometrical orders of organization, aesthetic form geometrical orders and aesthetic arrays geometrical orders. It is noteworthy that these geometrical orders crystalize from the galaxy of Iranian geometrical architecture woven and impartible; therefore the primary goal of their identification is to gain cognition toward individually to shed light on them.
Keywords: Geometry, Geometric Order, Qualitative Content Analysis, Iranian Architecture.
 
Introduction
Although the geometry is a known concept and the most of researchers talk about geometry in Iranian architecture, the different spectrum of researcher’s vote indicates that when the topic of geometry in Iranian architecture is brought up it is not precisely clear that which one of the following topics is geometry. 
- Topics like module, modulation order and measurement
- Climatic orientation
- The geometry of Iranian structures
- Topics around symmetry, fitness, balance
- The geometry of Girih tiles and arabesque patterns
The main issue of this research is that what are different types of geometrical order in Iranian architecture? It should be said that all individual geometrical orders in Islamic-Iranian research literature of architecture are studied extensively but to merely explore each topic individually contributes to the appearance of many errors in real understanding and application of these geometrical orders. The assumption considered for this research is the variety in types and levels in Iranian architecture not identified together to date and not dealing with all geometrical orders together have led to lack of understanding of the real geometrical order. So the most critical questions of this research are:
What is the meaning of geometry, and which concepts are similar in the researcher’s vote?
What types of geometrical orders can be identified in votes of the Iranian researcher of the architecture?
Since the base of this research is to refer to the votes of researchers and texts obtained from the conducted researches, the content analysis of texts can be constructive as well as strategic. Moreover, as not the aim of this research is not only about the appearance of the message but the hidden content of is also attended and described the qualitative content analysis method is adopted. The qualitative content analysis method falls into inductive and deductive methods. In the inductive method, researchers trust in a wave of data to arrive at deep understanding. This status is referred to as inductive category (Iman Nooshadi 22:1391). In this research, the deductive method was applied to choose
The texts and then it was the inductive method implemented.
Text selection in this research is chosen and coded based on quality content analysis, in terms of targeted selection from the texts related to continuous concept networks (prime issues) in Iranian architecture.
Then, chosen texts are named and classified based on the similarities in the field (main topics) afterwards, a second classification and coding considering the field similarities were made. All of these classifications are identified and named as a geometrical order.
 
Discussion
- The definition of geometrical order and identification of a network of consistent concepts with geometry
The expression of geometrical order in this research is defined as below:
The geometrical order is the order of components belonging to a collection based on the principals and geometrical rules in line with attaining a goal.
To consider the geometrical definitions of the following topics as a “network of consistent content with geometry” was primarily identified and extracted by the name of primary topics.
- Size, value, amount
- Shape, pattern, face, direction
- Rules identifying sizes and shapes
-Semantic concepts
- Text adoption based on the network of consistent concepts with geometry (main topics) and primary coding
In the second step of this research by taking into account, the network of consistent concepts with geometry including size, shape, geometrical rules and semantic concepts (primary topics) the texts and votes of researchers in Iranian-Islamic architecture were studied. Parts of these studies about the primary concepts were extracted from the inside of studies (selected texts), and then those chosen texts were primarily recorded.
- Classification of the selected texts based on the similarities in fields (main topics)
In the third step of research based on the repetition frequency of the topics in the selected texts, each of primary topics extended to multiple branches. The extended branches of the primary topics in this research are called main topics.
- Classification of main topics based on the similarities in the fields and second coding
In the fourth step of this research after the study on the main topics, it was revealed that these topics could also be classified based on the similarities in the field. The main topics are related to the primary topics adapted from the definitions of the geometry, seen from another way round, considering the similarities in filed are related to the study perspectives, human dimensions, climate, نیارش, form aesthetic and array aesthetic. Finally, in the form of separated tables, each of which deals with the representation of a class and main topics of its subset the coding process is produced.
 
Conclusion
This research is aimed at the recognition of the geometrical orders in Iranian architecture and in response to research questions, the following results were obtained. To answer the first research question raised following the production of the geometry definition and recognition of concepts having a common meaning with geometry in Iranian architecture it became revealed that the following topics as a network of consistent meaning with geometry are classified as merely quantitative to entirely qualitative in different levels including:
- Size, value, amount
- Shape, pattern, face, direction, sample forms
- Rules identifying sizes and shapes
- Semantic concepts
To respond to the second and central question of this research, what types of geometrical order in votes of the Iranian researcher of the architecture can be identified? It can be said that by taking into consideration the performed analysis in this research, the five following geometrical order can be determined in the votes of the Iranian researcher of the architecture.
- Geometrical order of human dimension
- Geometrical order of Climate
- Geometrical order of structure
- Geometrical order of aesthetic form
- Geometrical order of decorations aesthetic
Comparison between the extracted results from the two domains of the common concepts with geometry and different geometrical order in architecture (geometrical examples) shows that geometry in both areas of concepts and examples have various levels and principles suggesting the inherent potentials of geometry.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Geometry
  • Geometric Order
  • qualitative content analysis
  • Iranian architecture