شناسایی ساختار محله های شهر شیراز از دوره اتابکان تا قاجار

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری شهرسازی اسلامی، دانشکدۀ معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه هنر اسلامی تبریز، تبریز، ایران

2 دانشیار، دانشکدۀ معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه هنر اسلامی تبریز، تبریز، ایران

10.22084/nb.2021.22921.2232

چکیده

محله‌ها یکی از مهم‌‌ترین عناصر شکل‌دهندۀ ساختار شهر‌های ایرانی هستند. مطالعات بسیاری تلاش کرده‌اند تا ساختار شهر را با اتکا به بررسی عناصر اصلی شهر (مانند: مسجد، بازار اصلی شهر، دارالحکومه و...) بازنمایی کنند؛ در این‌میان به محله، تنها به‌عنوان بافت پر‌کنندۀ میان این ساختار توجه شده ‌است. هم‌چنین در پژوهش‌هایی که به بررسی مجزای محلات تاریخی شهری پرداخته‌اند، مشاهده می‌شود اغلب به کلی گویی و تحلیل کیفی متون اکتفا شده است. هدف و پرسش اصلی این پژوهش شناسایی الگو‌ها و ساختار محله‌های تاریخی شهر شیراز از دوره‌های اتابکان تا قاجار است. به‌نظر می‌رسد عناصر جزئی زندگی روزمرۀ شهروندان در ادوار تاریخی نسبت به عناصر اصلی ساختار شهر به‌شکل بهتری ساختار محله‌ها را نمایش می‌دهد. شهر شیراز از آن‌جهت برگزیده شده که، اسناد معتبری از وجود محله در این شهر از سدۀ هشتم هجری‌قمری وجود دارد؛ بنابراین ساختار محله‌‌ها با بررسی شش عنصر جزئی شهری، شامل: ساختار گذرها، نقش راسته‌ها، مرزها، کاربری‌ها، اقشار مختلف ساکن و اسامی محلی در سه گروه: عوامل «کالبدی»، عوامل «اجتماعی» و عوامل «خدماتی» با روش توصیفی-تحلیلی مورد بررسی قرار‌ گرفته‌اند. داده‌ها اغلب از نوع داده‌‌های کتابخانه‌ای هستند که با بررسی اسناد مکتوب و مصور تاریخی گردآوری شده‌اند. نتایج تحلیل‌ها نشان می‌دهد که عوامل «اجتماعی» در محله‌‌ها از با‌ اهمیت‌ترین ویژگی معنابخش آن‌ها به‌شمار می‌آید که علاوه‌بر داشتن رابطۀ دو‌سویه با سایر قلمرو‌های «کالبدی» و «خدماتی» زیربنیان‌‌های اساسی آن‌ها را نیز را شکل می‌‌دهد. درواقع نقش اجتماعی، اجتماع‌‌های محلی در هر دورۀ تاریخی، سبب شده تا مکان‌یابی محله، فرم فیزیکی عناصر کالبدی، توزیع کاربری‌ها و اسامی و نماد‌ها در هر محله به گونه‌ای متفاوت، اما در پیوند یکپارچه با کلیت شهر ظهور پیدا کرده یا دگرگون گردد. در پایان سعی‌شده تا ساختار محله‌های شیراز در چهار دورۀ اتابکان، زندیه، صفویه و قاجار توصیف شود.   

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Identifying the Structure of Shiraz Neighborhoods from Atabakan to Qajar Period

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mahsa chizfahm daneshmandian 1
  • ahad NEJAD EBRAHIMI 2
1 Ph.D candidate of Islamic Urbanism, Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism, Tabriz Islamic Art University, Tabriz, Iran.
2 Associate Professor, Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism, Tabriz Islamic Art University, Tabriz, Iran
چکیده [English]

Neighborhoods are one of the most important elements in shaping the structure of Iranian cities. Many studies tried to represent the structure of historic cities focusing on the main physical elements (such as the Jama Masjid, the main bazaar, the capital, etc.) hence, the neighborhood has been considered only as a filling texture. Moreover, most of the researches that studied the neighborhoods as a separate issue, were limited to the generalizations and qualitative analysis of texts. Thus, the purpose of this study is to identify the patterns and structure of Shiraz’s historic neighborhoods accurately by using the non-physical elements. Shiraz has been chosen because it has credible evidence of the neighborhood since the eighth century AH. Therefore, the structure of neighborhoods by examining six urban elements, including the structure of passages, the role of streets, borders, uses, different living strata, and local names in three categories of “physical” factors, “social” factors, and “service” factors with descriptive and analytical methods were examined. The data are often library data collected by examining written documents (such as the travelogues and local history books) and historical illustrations (such as maps or pictures). The results show that “social” factors in neighborhoods are the most significant semantic attribute. It does not only have a mutual relationship with “physical” and “service” factors but also forms their basic foundations. The social role of neighborhoods in each historical period has led to selecting the location of the neighborhood, constructing the physical form, distributing the services, and giving symbolic names; this is a factor that causes the difference and cohesion of neighborhoods in the city at the same time. Finally, an attempt is made to describe the structure of Shiraz neighborhoods in the four periods of Atabakan, Zandieh, Safavid, and Qajar.
Keywords: Historical Neighborhood, Neighborhood Structure, Social Role, Physical and Non-physical Features, Shiraz City.
Introduction
The neighborhood has a long history in the global urban system, with superiority in the Middle East and Asia. In Iran, Turkey, and Iraq, it is known as “Maallä” or “Mahalle” or “Makhala,” and in Aleppo and Damascus, it is known as “Hara” (Hourani and stern, 1970). Neighborhood plus three elements of government, ummah, and guilds are the four elements that are considered to be the main elements of Islamic urban life (Ashraf, 1353: 24). The neighborhood was like a town in the heart of the city, meeting all of its residents’ physical, economic, and livelihood needs. Many studies attempted to represent the structure of historic cities by focusing on the main physical elements (such as the Jama Masjid, the main bazaar, the capital, etc.); as a result, the neighborhood was only considered as a filling texture. However, non-physical dimensions that have been less well established in city history research, play a significant role in defining the neighborhood’s structure. The representation of neighborhoods based on the city’s main physical elements simply looks like the assimilation and dominance of the spirit of the times over the points of the authority of its contemporary government, rather than the reality of social life in those neighborhoods. Neighborhoods are typically formed as a result of social interaction between people who live in close proximity to one another. In fact, the neighborhood is a social unit larger than a family that is not directly controlled by the government. The goal of this research is to depict the patterns and structures of Shiraz’s historical neighborhoods from Atabakan to Qajar. This article is significant because it examines both physical and nonphysical aspects; emphasizing man and his entity above all. Furthermore, the city of Shiraz was chosen because many historical sources indicate the existence of a neighborhood from the eighth century AH. The research method used is a descriptive-analytical method in which data is gathered through library studies and a review of written and illustrated historical documents, as well as reconstructed maps based on evidence.
 
Main Text
In the main body, three “physical,” “social,” and “service” factors have been selected as the most detailed classification after analyzing the various classifications made about the neighborhood’s characteristics.

Physical factors: The physical boundaries of the neighborhood and the passage layout have been discussed in this section. Moreover, an attempt has been made to schematically reconstruct the location of neighborhoods prior to the construction of modern straight streets using information from passages and historical maps.
Social factors: social, religious, and ethnic stratification, as well as symbolic neighborhood naming, have all been investigated.
Service factors: the distribution of local uses and services, as well as local passage activity, have been assessed. Due to a lack of detailed historical background records, we have confined to the Qajar period.

 
Conclusion
The findings show that the structure of Shiraz neighborhoods changed over time, from the Atabakan to the Qajar periods, while preserving their cohesion and unique identity.

During the Atabakan period, Shiraz had 16 neighborhoods, all of which were located in the southeastern part of the current historical context.
Between the Atabakan and Safavid periods, the urban fabric expands to the north and west, and the number of neighborhoods reaches 19 at the start of the Safavid period. Other religious groups, such as Christians and Jews, formed their own local passage and neighborhood during the Safavid period. These two neighborhoods were located in newly established parts of the city, close to the location of the government department at the time.
Between the Safavid and Zandieh periods, the city expands again to the north, forming new neighborhoods, and a number of neighborhoods in the eastern block merge to form larger neighborhoods. As a result, despite the fact that the number of neighborhoods at the beginning of both the Safavid and Zandi periods is 19, we are witnessing the physical expansion of neighborhoods and the creation of new neighborhoods in the northern block. The number of neighborhoods was consolidated and reduced to ten by the end of the Zandi era, allowing the central government to better manage the city. The interesting thing is that the names of the former neighborhoods have not been forgotten entirely, and they can still be found on local streets.
There are no major physical changes in the Qajar era compared to the previous period, but there is significant social change. Some of the neighborhoods are divided into aristocratic and demagogic zones. During this time, the governmental citadel completely isolated the Maidan Shah Neighborhood and Darb-e-Shazdeh from the rest of the city. The Ghavam-ol-Molk family community zone in Balakaft, Mushir-ol-Molk in Sang-e-Siah neighborhood, and the heads of the Qashqai tribe in the west of Maidan Shah Neighborhood, and Haji Mirza Hassan Ali Khan Nasir-ol-Molk in the southwest of Ishaq Beyg neighborhood were also among the aristocratic area. The study of service factors during this period reveals that, with the exception of the Kalimian neighborhood, all neighborhoods had at least 5 mosques and, in addition to the city’s main markets, three local markets in the aristocratic complexes of Sang-e-Siah, Bala Kaft, and Ishaq Beyg neighborhoods. The market of the Lab-e-Ab neighborhood is also mentioned in the documents. The distribution of local uses and passage activity demonstrates that the concept of today’s neighborhood center is largely embedded in the passage body. During the Qajar period, the most densely populated neighborhoods were Kalimian, Leb-e-Ab, Sardazak, and Ishaq Beyg.

The analysis of the adaptation of the three factors “physical,” “social,” and “service” also reveals that during these seven centuries, neighborhoods were formed primarily on the basis of ethnic, racial, religious, and socio-political status. Furthermore, the names of neighborhoods and passages are the most stable feature connecting historical identity across generations.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Historical Neighborhood
  • Neighborhood Structure
  • Social Role
  • Physical and Non-physical Features
  • Shiraz City
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