دوره گودین VII و بازنگریِ مطالعات آغاز دوره مس و سنگ جدید بخش هایی از غرب ایران

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

دانشجوی دکتری باستان شناسی، گروه باستان شناسی، دانشکدۀ ادبیات و علوم انسانی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.

10.22084/nb.2021.22132.2176

چکیده

بیشتر محققانی که در باستان‌شناسی پیش‌ازتاریخ غرب ایران مطالعه داشته، معتقد هستند که با شروع دورۀ مس‌وسنگ جدید بسیاری از دشت‌ها و دره‌های کوهستانی مناطق غرب ایران خالی از سکنه شده و به نوعی یک فروپاشی عظیم فرهنگی رخ می‌هد.  این درحالی است که بررسی‌ها و کاوش‌های یک دهۀ اخیر چیزی خلاف این نظر را نشان می‌دهد. علاوه‌بر این برخی نظریات دیگر نیز در ارتباط با فرهنگ‌های آغاز این دوره، نظیر: شکل‌گیری، دامنۀ پراکنش فرهنگ‌های سفالی، گاهنگاری، الگوی استقرار و... با  تحقیقات جدید هم‌خوانی نداشته و باعث به‌وجود آمدن پرسش‌های اساسی در زمینۀ مطالعات این دوره شده است؛ ازجملۀ این پرسش‌ها این است که در پایان دورۀ مس‌وسنگ میانی در اواخر هزارۀ پنجم پیش‌ازمیلاد به‌واقع شاهد گسست و فروپاشی فرهنگی هستیم؟ فرهنگ‌های این دوره، نظیر گودین VII محدود به مناطق شرق زاگرس‌مرکزی است؟ مواد فرهنگی محوطه‌های آغازین دورۀ مس‌وسنگ جدید دارای چه ویژگی‌هایی هستند؟ به‌منظور پاسخ‌گویی به این پرسش‌ها، مواد فرهنگی به‌دست آمده از بررسی‌ها و کاوش‌های باستان‌شناسی با رویکرد توصیفی-تحلیلی مورد بررسی و مطالعه قرار گرفتند.  نتایج این پژوهش نشان می‌دهد که باوجود برخی تغییرات در زمینۀ سنت‌های سفالی، فرهنگ‌های مراحل آغازین دورۀ مس‌وسنگ جدید در ادامۀ فرهنگ‌های دورۀ مس‌وسنگ میانی شکل گرفته‌اند. هم‌چنین با شروع این دوره نه‌تنها گسست و فروپاشی فرهنگی رخ نمی‌دهد؛ بلکه شاهد نوعی پویایی فرهنگی نیز هستیم. هم‌چنین به‌نظر می‌رسد که دامنۀ پراکنش اصلی‌ترین فرهنگ این دوره به‌نام «گودین VII» محدود به مناطق شرق زاگرس‌مرکزی نیست و مناطق وسیعی را ورای شرق زاگرس‌مرکزی در غرب ایران دربر می‌گیرد. بازبینی مطالعات این دوره در این پژوهش تصویر جدیدی را از فرهنگ‌های آغازین دورۀ مس‌وسنگ جدید بخش‌هایی از غرب ایران ارائه داده است.  

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Godin VII Period and the Revive of Early Late Chalcolithic Period Studies of the West Iran

نویسنده [English]

  • Sirvan Mohammadi Ghasrian
Ph.D. in Archeology, Department of Archeology, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

During Early Late Chalcolithic period at the end of the fifth millennium BC, It has been claimed that an event has occurred in the West Iran to be seen by a severe decline in the number of residential areas and functioned to bring a shift by which the sedentary societies were changed to the more mobile pastoralists using open-air or cave areas instead of large occupational sites. But review of archaeological investigation carried out recently in west of Iran challenge this hypothesis.  Recently there have been a number of field activities on the LC sites in western Iran are showing that at the end of fifth millennium BC, in the Zagros region there has been not only an indication of drastic decline in settlement areas but instead this area would be experienced a dense population growth. In addition there are some hypothesis regarding the formation, settlement pattern, pottery, chronology and… that did not fix with recent studies. This uncertainty raised many questions regarding this study. So in order to response to this question and give a new view to the archaeology of early late chalcolithic period of western Iran, the data of this period(particularly the well-known Godin VII period) has been investigated. The result showing that not only there is not a severe decline in the number of residential areas, but early late chalcolithic period cultures of western Iran had developed. Also, the Godin VII culture is not limited just the east of Central Zagros and extended beyond this region. Many areas at the north of central Zagros in Kurdistan province had Godin VII culture. At the east also this culture extended to the eastern edge of central plateau of Iran like Qazvin region. Regarding the importance of Godin VII period as it corresponding the early urbanization in Mesopotamian world, it should pay more attentions by archaeologists.
Keywords: Godin VII. Late Chalcolithic. Red slipped pottery. Central Zagros.
 
Introduction
Godin VII period(VII/VI3) named Godin VII hereafter in this paper become well known in the prehistory of west of Iran after 2 season of archaeological excavations at Godin Tepe carried out  by Rroyal Ontario Museum expedition around 1964-1975. Godin VII period considered as a first phase of late chalcolithic coming after middle chalcolithic deposits of Godin Tepe (Godin X-VIII) characterized by disappearance of painted ceramics and replacement of plain chaff tempered of Godin VII style.  during the Early Late Chalcolithic period started around the end of the fifth millennium BCE, it has been claimed that there has been a drastic decline in the population size and eventually in the number of settlements caused the Zagros region to have had any considerable settlement sites (Abdi 2003:431-433; Johnson 1987:129-131; Wright 1987:145-147) and as Hole has stated (Hole 1994:132-134, 2011:7); in the some valleys of the region such an event has imposed the settlements to be abandoned. In addition, according to the significant decrease in the number of permanent settlements, it has been claimed also that the Late Chalcolithic sites might be more likely converted to open-air or cave sites suggesting a shift to the more mobile pastoral way of life (Henrickson 1989: 288). But as a result of the recent archaeological investigations carried out in the region we will challenge the issues of the two general hypotheses mentioned regarding a sudden interruption or rather instead the continuity of the Late Chalcolithic culture of western Iran. Recently there have been a number of field activities on the LC sites in western Iran are showing that at the end of fifth millennium BC, in the Zagros region there has been not only an indication of drastic decline in settlement areas but instead this area would be experienced a dense population growth. A large number of identified LC sites in western Iran are seen as relatively higher mounds (tells) seem to have concealed the solid architectural materials as well as thick cultural deposits may implying potentially as the remains of sedentary farmer villages. Nearly all issues regarding of Godin VII period studies in west of Iran are mainly based on studies of 1964-1975. But as a result of recent investigations many of them have been challenged and refused. The present paper would try to update the studies of Godin VII period showing that this period has a key role in prehistoric period of western Iran. 
 
Discussion
The most northern well known site possessing Godin VII cultural characteristics in western Iran is Tepe Nameshir located in Baneh county, north-west of Kurdistan province (Saed Moucheshi et al. 2017:fig8). Moreover, there exist a handful of fieldwork reports mainly by the Iranians pointing to a wider expansion of Godin VII ceramics across the western Iran, e.g. Marivan (Mohammadifar and Motarjem 2001), Tepe Kalnan (Saed Moucheshi et al. 2011), Tepe Gheshlagh in Bijar region (Sharifi and Motarjem 2018), Sanandaj (Zarehi et al. 2017, Mohammadi Ghasrain et al. 2019), Qorveh plain (Sharifi and Zeynivand 2018), Ziwieh (Mohammdi Ghasrian and Hozhabri 2017) and Karaftou (Jahangiri and Ahmadinia 2018:257). Godin VII ceramic was reported also from Soha Chai tepe excavation (Rahimi et al. 2016) and by Abharroud basin surveys in Zanjan area (Alibaigi et al. 2012; Khosrawi et al. 2013). In addition to Kurdistan and Zanjan, almost all eastern valleys of Kermanshah including Sahneh (Mohammdifar and Motarjem 2003), Harsin (Motarjem and Mohammadifar 2002), Sonqor (Heydarian and Ghorbani 2016:24) and Kangvar (Young 1975:192) are seen to have been influenced by Godin VII traditions. The same culture also was extended southern ward to reach Asadabad, Nehavand (Young 1961) and Hamedan (Balmaki, 2013) and even toward southernmost into Luristan (Goff, 1971, Henrickson, 1994). Beside the Iranian west, the cultural realm of Godin VII tradition also has been to affect the Central Plateau of this country, i.e. those Plume ware of Tepe Ghabristan (Ghabristan I)(Majidzadeh, 1978: 96, 1981: 143) is supposed to be influenced by Godin VII.
In the areas such as Kangavar valley (Young, 1975:192 Henrickson, 1994:92) Sanandaj (Zarehi et al. 2016), Songhor (Heydarian and Ghorbani, 2016:24), Marivan (Zamain Dadaneh et al. 2019:39-40), Qorveh (Sharifi and Zeynivand, 2018:736) and Karaftou (Jahangiri and Ahmadinia, 2018:257), most of the findings were classified as being made during LC period.
Apart from the LC site abundances in the study area there is evidence of structural component of many sites to be used as indication for sedentary life. A number of Godin VII period’s site as discussed in the following have been dug out recently and yielded so many building materials, remains of upstanding mud brick walls as well as thick cultural deposits.
 
Conclusion
We briefly reviewed three theories relating to the terminal fifth millennium BC in western Iran. They stated that:
- At the end of the fifth millennium BC a drastic decline of settlements were occurred in the Zagros through which many sites were abandoned (Hole 1994, 2011; Abdi 2003).
- Late Chalcolithic sites were converted to open-air or cave sites so that the subsistent strategies of the region were also shifted to mobile pastoralism way of life (Henrickson, 1989:288).
- Late Chalcolithic (Godin VII) ceramic as known from the Kangavar valley are apparently missing almost entirely in the High Rod valleys (west of Sahneh area) (Levine and Young 1987:35).
On the basis of recently found evidence from different fieldworks we challenged the issue stressing a sharp decrease of the settlements number in the Zagros region. In contrary to aforementioned concepts we argued that at the end of the fifth millennium BC, Godin VII tradition covered vast areas of western Iran. All valleys from the Little Zab basin in the north west of Kurdistan to the eastern valley of Central Zagros represent plain/coarse Godin VII diagnostic ceramic types.
In addition, we argued that most of the Godin VII cultural layer in the study area represented solid architectural remains as the representative of housing structures for sedentary people while the pastoralist seasonal or temporary camps are generally relatively small in size and were built with no durable materials.
Finally, the statement that “Godin VII traditions are apparently missing almost entirely in the High Road…”could also be challenged by the findings reported from the Taq-e Bostan site excavation which has been located at the same area. Remarkably instead of the proposed drastic cultural changes with the beginning of the Late Chalcolithic period, it can be seen that at the end of the fifth millennium BC in western Iran, the first sign of socio-economic complexity, Craft Specialization, hierarchical societies and initial administrative systems were emerged and gradually were improved.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Godin VII. Late Chalcolithic. Red slipped pottery. Central Zagros
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