عنوان مقاله [English]
The decorative motifs of tombstones are a reflection of cultural, social and religious conditions, which are manifested in the form of animal, plant, geometric, human, inscription and symbolic motifs. The study of the hidden and visible qualities of historical cemeteries is very important in order to understand some of the worlds and relations that governed past societies; Because by reflecting on the environmental qualities of these areas and also researching the cultural materials scattered in their environment, one can dig into the understanding of some unknowns from the history of societies and understanding angles of the dominant intellectual nature of them. The purpose of this article is to realize the importance and political, social and religious status of Turjan village in the Qajar period by relying on written and archeological evidences such as tombstones, Sheikh Vesu cemetery. And given that no research has been done on this cemetery so far, Therefore, the study of the cemetery can show the importance of this type of artifacts in the archaeological studies of the Islamic period in the city of Saqqez and especially in the province of Kurdistan. The tombstone of Turjan historical cemetery as an example in the form of a statistical community in terms of time and morphology is comparable to other Qajar cemeteries and architectural decorations of Mukrian region such as Bukan, Tekab and Mahabad. This article will try to answer the following questions: Who were the prominent people buried in this cemetery and what was their role or place in the history of this region and The study of literary inscriptions and rich motifs of the tombstones of Sheikh Wesu Cemetery In terms of variety and quality of works, what important cultural and social results of their time? In the leading research, which was conducted in a descriptive and analytical method, the designs and arrays on the tombstones were described, classified, designed, documented and analyzed. The findings of the study indicate that a number of tombstones with significant decorations in this cemetery belonged to the Quoj Beeg family and people with high social status in the Mukrian area. In addition, relying on this cemetery, we can understand the political and social importance of Turjan and also the position of this village as a well-known religious and cultural center in the region during the Qajar period.
Keywords: Turjan, Sheikh Wusu Graveyard, Tombstone, Qoj Baig. Nuralnesa.
From the beginning of existence until today, one of the most basic thoughts of man has been the issue of death and the world after it. From the creation of works such as sculptures, paintings and illustrated works. One of the inseparable components of this thinking in all societies, which has been used as an essential tool for its objective and spiritual manifestations, is the tomb and the tombstone. The Qajar cemetery of Sheikh Vesu in the village of Turjan is one of the most important historical cemeteries in Iran, which is located in Kurdistan province and in the city of Saqez, which has not been studied yet. Introducing the mosque of Turjan Saqez village” has been pointed out its importance (Salimi and Solhjoo, 1397: 81). Suitable natural and environmental conditions such as sufficient water, suitable air and fertile soil make the history of human habitation in Turjan village at least to the Mesopotamian period (Zarefar, 1397: 79). During the Safavid period, when Budaq Sultan came to power in Mukrian province to the center of Mahabad, the areas around Turjan, including the villages of Kahrizeh Ayoubi, Baghlujeh, Hubaki and Shahrikand, became important as endowments for the Red Mosque in Mahabad (Yousefi And Khalili, 1395: 227).
Written evidence such as documents and tombstones as archeological findings show that the family and descendants of Abdullah Beeg, son of Budaq Sultan, such as Ahmad Beeg and Quj Beeg, during the reign of Muhammad Shah (1263-1251 AH) and Nasser al-Din Shah Qajar (1264-1313 AH) in Turjan builds a mansion, mosque, karez, etc. (Samadi, 1373: 206; Shamim, 1387: 143). The necessity of conducting this research is due to the fact that so far no coherent and comprehensive study has been done in relation to the Qajar cemetery of Turjan Saqez village. In the present article, which was done by field studies and descriptive and analytical methods, The motifs and arrays on the tombstones of Qajar Cemetery in Turjan were described, classified, designed, documented and analyzed. The result of this study confirms that the historical cemetery of Turjan belonged to the Quoj Beeg family and people with a high social status in the Mukrian region.
The historic cemetery of Turjan, which is still used by the residents of the village of Turjan, is located on a high and high hill in the southwest of the village, next to the dirt road leading to the agricultural lands. So far, no studies have been conducted on the historical cemetery of Tarjan. Afkhami is content to bring only a picture of the tomb of Mula Ali Ghezelji, a lecturer at the Turjan Mosque, in the book “History of Culture and Literature of Mukrian, Buchan”. Which is now completely gone. Salimi and Solhjoo have also pointed out the importance of Turjan cemetery. In general, Sheikh Vesu Cemetery has 10 historical tombs, among which 8 tombs belong to the Quoj-Beeg family with magnificent conical tombstones, such as the villages of Gardiglan Saqez and Pirbadin Bukan. In addition to these graves, the graves of other influential people such as Mula Ali Ghezelji, Sheikh Vesu, etc. were in Turjan cemetery, Which now has no trace of their original and historical structure. As it is obvious, the sculptors have been careful in choosing the stones to have the mountainous climate of the region such as Turjan. As a result, the sculptors have used the travertine mines of Zanbil village, 6 km away from Turjan. Undoubtedly, calligraphy has been one of the most important decorative subjects and the most obvious means and factor of art. The lines used in Turjan inscriptions include; Nasta’liq and Sols. To popularize their works and the connection between art and religious beliefs, the artists of Turjan tombstones have used images and lines and drawn the tip of the pen on the lifeless stone and given it spirit and freshness. The tombstone motifs of Sheikh Vesu Turjan cemetery can be divided into three groups: plants, geometric and inscriptions. Inscription motifs are engraved on the tombstones in three parts: header, text and margins.
The historical cemetery of Sheikh Vesu is one of the most important Qajar cemeteries in Kurdistan province, which has a total of 17 tombstones (belonging to 10 people) with inscription, plant and geometric motifs. Among the 10 deceased in Turjan Cemetery, two tombs belonging to Abdul Rahman Beeg, son of Imam Qoli Beeg Jalaladin and Mohammad Sharif, do not have much causal relationship with the other 8 deceased, including the Quj Beeg family. The tombstones of Sheikh Vesu Cemetery are decorated in a conical shape of three parts: header, text and margins with geometric, plant, motifs and inscriptions that are comparable to the examples of Pirbadin village. Bolaghi Armenian, Haji Kand Bukan and Gardiglan Saqez and the architectural decorations of the study area. Hajj Tarjani artists have used travertine ores in the construction of tombstones and, like in other parts of Iran, have used the poems of poets such as Abolsaid Abolkhair, Saadi and Jami to learn and learn lessons. On the tombstones of people like Quj Beeg and Mohammad Rashid Beeg, poems have been written that were probably written by local poets and the court of Quj Beeg. In general, based on studies on Turjan tombstones and written evidence, it can be concluded that Turjan gained political and military importance in the late Safavid era due to its border position between Mukrian and Ardalan Kurdistan.