پژوهشی تحلیلی بر جلوههای آیات قرآنی بر آثار فلزکاری ایران در دوران صفوی و قاجار «با استناد به آثار فلزی موزه ملی ایران»

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار گروه باستانشناسی دانشگاه شهرکرد و مدیر اجرایی فصلنامه ادبیات و علوم انسانی

چکیده

هنر اسلامی در قالب و محتواهای متنوعی در هنر فلزکاری ایران دیده می‌شود. یکی از آن‌ها، کتیبه‌های قرآنی با خطوط متنوع: کوفی، ثلث، نسخ و ... است که زیبایی بصری هم‌راه با فضای روحانی و عرفانی‌اش حاوی پیام‌های ارزش‌مندی برای صاحب اثر و بازدیدکنندگان آن در اعصار مختلف است. نمونه‌های فلزی مورد مطالعه‌ی این پژوهش، مستندات گنجینه اسلامی موزه ملی ایران مزین به کتیبه‌های قرآنی است. روش تحقیق توصیفی و تحلیلی هم‌راه با بازدید از موزه ملی ایران و هدف پژوهش: تطبیق، تبیین و تفسیر مضامین کتیبه‌های قرآنی متناسب با کاربری آثار فلزی صفویه و قاجار است. سوال پژوهش آن است که کتیبه‌های قرآنی از نظر مضمون و محتوا چه ارتباطی با آثار فلزی دارند؟ پیش‌فرض نشان می‌دهد که مضمون و محتوای آیات قرآنی با کارکرد آثار فلزی متناسب است و از نتایج پژوهش استنباط می‌شود که آیات قرآنی کم‌تر بر آثار هنری (نسبت به دیگر کتیبه‌ها) دیده شده و علت آن می‌تواند مساله تقدس و ممنوعیتی باشد که در مورد هر گونه لمس آیات قرآن بدون وضو نهفته باشد؛ به‌خصوص در مورد آثاری که کاربرد فراوانی در زندگی روزمره مردم دارد بیشتر مصداق پیدا می‌کند و آثار فلزی از نظر گونه‌شناسی متنوع و شامل: جعبه قرآن، شمشیر، جام چهل‌کلید و ... است و هر کدام از گونه‌ها مزین به کتیبه‌های قرآنی هستند که با کاربری آن‌ها تناسب دارد و این بیان کننده آن می‌باشد، هنرمند با قرآن است چرا که با عشق و با نهایت تواضع توانسته است که آثار زیبایی به منصه ظهور برساند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

An Analytical Rresearch on the Flaunts of Quran Verses on Iranian Metallurgy During Safavid and Qajar era “According to the Metal Works of National Museum of Iran”

نویسنده [English]

  • majid sarikhani
چکیده [English]

Ever since man discovered metal, he got familiar with its properties and its importance in making glass objects like tools and implementing them in war, bowl, ewer, coins, and other items. Metalworking art contains antiquity history in Iranian art and the diffusion of metal has allocated clear periods in the Iranian art and archaeology such as Bronze and Iron Ages. Unique treasures of metalworking works have obtained during archaeological excavations and finally decorated the Museum of Iran and the World; the most important collection of metal objects have found from Marlik, as well as a series of Luristan bronze and many other series. Moreover, metal have emerged considerably over history for example Media, Achamenid, Parthian, and Sassanid), but Sassanid metalwork has an important role shaping the Islamic Art, especially metalwork. Khorasan Metalwork School (1-7 centuries AD) techniques and concepts of structural motives which have been indebted.
Islamic art in the form and contents of various motives of a variety of plants, animals, humans, geometric, graphic scrolls  can be seen in Iranian metal-working art; one of which is a written inscription (pre-Islamic) containing themes such verses, poems, names/dates of the manufacturing, and praying. This study is focused on the inscriptions of Quranic verses written on the metalwork during Safavid and Qajar Periods. Regarding to this, these periods are in a great position compare to the other periods, especially religiously studying its influence on decorative motif art. Metalworkers in these two periods of two important principles of Shi’ism and nationalism were inspired to create works of art, and these principles are seen in artwork. Islamic art can be seen in various formats and contents in Iranian metalworking. Quranic inscriptions on various lines such as Kufic, Thoth, Naskh, and other writing styles have been seen on works of art, and their visual beauty with mystical and spiritual themes contains valuable messages for artists and visitors over times. The metal samples studied in this research, that is, documentation of the metallic treasures of the National Museum of Iran, are decorated with Quranic inscriptions. According to this grouping, such as the content and form: (1) aspects of protection from disasters, (2) relevance of divine objects, (3) signs associated with victory on military works, (4) protection as part of other works in verses 256-257 of  Surah Baqara, 59 Al Nam, and (6) GH, Surah Fatehah, 3 and 4 Surah Tawheed, 13 Surah Saf have studied.
The research method is descriptive-analytical with a visit to the National Museum of Iran; the aim of research is matching, explanation, and interpretation of Quranic inscription themes in Safavid and Qajar Periods metalworking. The research question is what Quranic inscriptions do with metalworking in terms of content and themes? Our assumption suggests that the theme and content of the Quran is proportional with the function of metalworking. The inference is that the Quranic verses can be seen less than other inscriptions because of their sacredness and prohibition of touch of Quran without ablution. This subject has more evidence, especially in the case of works that have daily use. The metalworking are various in typologies as include Quran box, sword, and Cup of forty Keys (Chehel Kelid) which are decorated with Quranic inscriptions, if fit with their function. This expresses the artist’s familiarity with Quran because they are able to show beauty works with love and humility.
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کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Inscription
  • Metal
  • Quran Verses
  • Islamic Art
  • Safavid Period
  • Qajar Period