عنوان مقاله [English]
This paper is trying to introduce the sites, ceramic traditions and Chalcolithic settlement patterns of the Bijar County in the Qezel Awzan River basin which have been collected over six seasons of survey in the Bijar County. The total number of recorded sites are 76 attributed to the Chalcolithic Period. The history of sedentary life in the region it seems to be backed as early as the Middle Chalcolithic period along major watercourse and alluvial plain, suggesting the expansion of agricultural regime over the region. The lack of the earlier settlements before the Middle Chalcolithic period could be explained by existence of drier and cooler climate of the region as it is in other parts of the East Central Zagros. The number of middle chalcolithic sites reached to 56 and this period is characterized by three distinct Wares: Dalma Impressed, Red-slipped and Black-on-Buff while, the Late chalcolithic is characterized by Godin VII and VI and partially Pisdeli wars and the number of sites dropped to 33. Despite to dramatic change in the number of sites, the settlement patterns show major change. Here, in the Middle and Late Chalcolithic Period, three clusters of settlements can proposed: 1- Less than half a hectare, 2- Between half to three hectares and 3- Over three hectares. The dramatic reduction of sites and decrease of big sites with bigger than three hectares extent, and a tendency to occupy the early basin, suggesting an increasing reliance on proximate village-based herding or pastoralism. Several Middle Chalcolithic sites have abandoned, while the Late Chalcolithic sites are extended suggesting an emigration of people from Middle to Late chalcolithic sites or move from earlier to later sites. The rank-size models of settlement patterns show a wide range of differences, including central sites, sedentary sites and campsites. The first cluster includes sites with less than half a hectare and Part of these seem to be temporary campsites beyond the agricultural zone in the peripheries of the plain towards the grasslands. Moreover, proximity to the springs, intact area, small size, and the weak thickness of material culture, all refer to temporary use of the site clusters. The periphery of Bijar County in the Kurdistan province and other provinces is highland and it seems that has been occupied by specialized pastoralism and probably belongs to transhumance pastoralist peoples as this way of life is still common. The undertaken ethnoarchaeology studies by author showed that the transhumance practices in the contemporary village is currently available to observe. Transhumance pastoralism in the Chalcolithic Period can be suggested in the some sites having less than 500 m2, and even less than 150 square meters. Second parts of the first cluster are sites that located in the lowest area in the Bijar County proposed to practice transhumance pastoralist subsistence during all over the year. On the base of our data in the ethnoarchaeological survey, some of the village along the big river with lower bed were not able to control the river by the spring. The second group of sites distributed in all area including mountains, plains, along the river and streams, and based on settlement pattern, extension and the bulk of material culture, they could be sedentary villages. It is possible that the sites of this and third cluster can make the part of the first cluster. The third cluster are the sites that bigger than 3 hectares. These sites are located at the center of Plain close to the large river, where the paths have low elevation and could play a central role in the settlement pattern. Almost three clusters in both the Middle and Late Chalcolithic Period can be classified.