عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
The historical context of Birjand city includes valuable architectural works and historical buildings which have not been sufficiently considered by researchers in terms of traditional architecture. One of the distinguished buildings in this city- enjoying its trans-regional and trans-national status, is Showkateyeh School. Showkateyeh School in Birjand was constructed by Mohammad Ebrahim Khan Alam Showkat Al-Molk in 1890 as Showkateyeh Hossainiya and in 1903, it was converted into a school. In the present research, the authors are looking to introduce the building by adapting the approach of reviewing geometric proportions, analyze and evaluate the hypothesis of architect and designer’s utilization of geometrical principles and golden ratio in the spatial-contextual elements of the school, on the basis of such question: What function the geometry and golden ratio have played in the construction and formation of spatial elements of Showkateyeh School?” and present the obtained geometrical values through accurate geometric drawings of the plan, façade and cross-sections. Despite history of Persian civilization and the large volume of discovered artistic and architectural works from various periods, few studies have been conducted on the geometry and proportions of these works and all these studies have primarily tried to prove the existence of geometrical patterns and relationships in between geometric shapes and architectural elements of historical monuments and little attention has been paid to the function of the architect as well as geometrical drawings of the plan, façade and cross-sections. Based on its main subject, that is, understanding the basic geometry and golden ratio and Iranian proportions in Showkateyeh School, this research trying to investigate the function of the architect using geometrical principles to create the spaces needed for the building, the relationship of the spaces with one another, the location of each of the architectural elements, calculating the height of the building and ensuring the beauty and strength of the building. Understanding this function can play a significant role in restoration and reinterpretation of historical buildings, which is not possible without reviewing the geometry and geometric proportions in a historical building. In the present research, the authors have used the analytical method as well as data collection tools including field observation and library research. Drawings in this research have been produced manually using the most rudimentary architectural tools such as simple ruler, set square and compass. Then, given the introvert structure of Showkateyeh School and the importance of the porch and the central yard in introvert buildings, these two architectural elements have been presented as the focal points of the building and by considering these points for producing the geometric drawings, in order to figure out the geometric shape of the building (regular hexagon), the authors reviewed the geometry of the building to identify the geometric structure and proportions in Showkateyeh School. After studying the research variables such as the extent to which golden ratios and Iranian proportions have affected the design and construction of the building as well as locating the architectural elements and creating beauty and visual balance in the building, the results of the analysis indicated that the architect of the building has had sufficient knowledge of proportional systems and drawing of geometrical shapes and has used his knowledge in selecting the scales of the building and locating the main spaces such as the yard, porch, kitchen and entrance. The golden ratio and Iranian proportions of √2 and √3 have been fully integrated into the development of the building, yet the architect has used the golden ratio primarily to locate the architectural points and spaces.