عنوان مقاله [English]
The rock reliefs of Sassanid era are perfect examples of a political ideal, namely the unity between religion and kingdom. The religious elements and characters which are used in these rock reliefs, especially in the diadem gaining rites, are indication of Sassanian kings’ desire to emphasize on the unity between religion and kingdom. Although Sassanians emphasized on the Zoroastrian monism, Sassanian kings depicted the triangular relation between Ahura Mazda- Mithra- and Anahita in the rock reliefs of their diadem gaining rites. Ardeshir, Shapour, and Bahram I, all take the royal ring from Yazata, Ahura Mazda. Narseh owes his sovereignty to Ahura Mazda and Anahita which he gains his royal diadem from them, separately. Ardeshir II takes the royal ring from Ahura Mazda in the presence of Anahita; and Piruz I is honored to be in the presence of both yazatas, Ahura Mazda and Anahita, while taking the royal ring from Ahura Mazda by his right hand. Regarding the fact that the great Yazata, Ahura Mazda, was usually in charge of giving the royal diadem to kings in Sassanian rock reliefs, shall we ask what is the religious justification behind the presence of Anahita and Mithra in such representations? Shall we try to answer this question in a religious way? Were Anahita and Mithra of that high status which their presence in diadem - giving rites, along with Ahura Mazda could double the legitimacy of Sassanian kings? Or their presence in rock reliefs was the result of interconnection between existing social, political and economic issues with Yazatas individual actions? Also we should mention the presence of Yazata, Bahram, in Ardeshir I relief in Naqsh-e Rajab and alien goddess Nike. According to the historical and archaeological evidence, the presence of these two Yazatas was a reflection of social and political issues rather than a matter of religious fluctuations in different times of Sassanian era. To confirm this claim, we can mention two examples: first, the presence of Mitra in Ardeshir II rock relief and second, the presence of Anahita besides Ahura Mazda in Taq -e- Bostan, both appearing at first sight to be the two instances of Sassanian faith in religious trinity. Political, economic and cultural turmoil in different periods of Sassanid dynasty, sometimes forced Sassanian kings to resort to the most influencing state media, which were rock reliefs. Contrary to the putative interpretation, it seems more likely that Ardeshir II appealed to Mitra for the sake of political legitimacy and proving his royal authenticity. Likewise, Pirouz regained the social safety, balance, and security of his reign by his deliberate appeal to Anahita. Yazata, Bahram or Hercules, plays an important role in Bahram I’s political game and this Sassanian king, Bahram I, could gain historical credit to his reign by mentioning the presence of Bahram in Ardeshir I, Bahram I’s ancestor, rock relief. Foreign policies and honors found their way into reliefs too. For example, Shapour I, at the peak of his power and strength depicted Nike in his relief and with doing so, showed off his dominance over many important Aniranian realms. Even the emergence of Nike in Shapour I rock relief debts much to the political issues as well as Aniranian reflections in empire rather than changes in Sassanian religious system and dominance of foreignism. According to the historical and archaeological evidences, the presence of these two Yazatas was a reflection of social and political issues rather than a matter of religious fluctuations in different times of Sassanian Era. This research is used on comparative analysis of historical documents and archaeological data via Historical Analysis view.