عنوان مقاله [English]
In the mountainous terrain of Iran, having the “Strait” or “Canyon”, especially when faced with massive troops, a special privilege and even a winning key. “Canyon” or “Strait” was meant to be a passageway which passed through two mounts with a long wall and was protected by the creation of a defensive strand and troops on tight sides.Among the most famous & strategic straits in the history of Iran,can be referred to the Darband-e Kūlā (Kūlā Strait),which was the gateway to the Qārēn & Sharwin mountains and at the end of the Sassanid era and the first centuries of Arab domination,which was the battlefield and the focus of the conflicts between Spahbeds of Tabarestān against the Umayyad and Abbasid troops.But now Darband-e Kūlā`s place,is not obvious to us and in the past decades,the efforts of the researchers and his dispersed views to clarify the position of this toponym,have failed. The most important question of this research is where is Darband-e Kūlā?So the fundamental purpose of this research is to identify this lost position in the during the history,using field survey method,historical geographic studies and descriptive-analytic methods was conducted among possible options.Due to the lack of resources about the Darband-e Kūlā, authors by inquiring into historical texts, with difficulty found the related lines with this toponym and they used it to reach the location of this Strait. Also, with field surveys, an old and strategic straits was identified in the East side of Alborz Mountaians in the Māzandarān Province, to be consistent with the indications given in the historical texts, compatibility to Darband-e Kūlā be investigated and to uncover the ambiguity about the position of this occupation.
Keywords: Tabarestān, Savādkūh, Darband-e Kūlā, Spahbed Vandād Hūrmazd.
Introduction & Method
Darband or Straight; It was called a narrow hill Passing through two mountains with high walls and was protected by the establishment of a defensive dike and the deployment of the shooters and soldiers on top of the tight sides. These straits by preventing the arrival of the troops into the territory of Tabarestān, played a fundamental role in protecting the separation and independence of this part of Iran in different periods, Especially for two centuries after the Invasion of Arabs to Irānshahr. The most important Straight of Tabarestān was a Darband named “Kūlā”, which was the Spāhbedan Tabarestān Bastion in front of numerous Arab armies, and many years ago, researchers of geographic history and archaeologists were looking for the right place. The place of the Darband-e Kūlā is controversial. The main question of the research is: where is Darband-e Kūlā? And the main hypothesis: It is possible to locate Darband-e Kūlā ‘s place in the vicinity of the Spahbed Khūrshid Cave-Fortress.
1. Is the Darband-e Kūlā the same Tang-e Latteh strait near Sari?
2. Is Darband-e Kūlā the same as in Kevā in Hezārjarib?
3. Is Darband-e Kūlā the same passageway that is adjacent to the Sar Tangeh of Ārēm in Savādkūh?
2- Darband-e Kūlā is the same as Tang-e Latteh Strait near Sari.
3. Darband-e Kūlā is the same as in the Kevā in Hezārjarib.
4. Darband-e Kūlā is the same passage that is located in Sar Tangeh, Ārēm Savādkūh.
This article is in the category of historical geography research, which is based on Archaeological surveys;(identification, Investigation, documentation) and the collection and scrutiny of historical and geographical texts and with a descriptive-analytic approach.
Appellation and Historical Background of Darband-e Kūla
The first and most frequent references to Kūla and Darband-e Kūla are in the book “History of Ṭabarestān”, which was written by “Ibn Isfandyār Kateb” in 613 A.H. Often referred to as, ‘Kūla’, ‘Darband-I Kūlā’, ‘Maslaheh Kūlā’, ‘Sar tangeh Kūla’ and the name of ‘Bākālijār-e kūla’ or’ Kūlāvij’ who attributes people to Kūlā. In the history of Ṭabarestān, in the description of the revolt of Spahbed Khūrshid it is written; “Spahbed Khūrshid; placed all his loved ones, Descendants, Wives, Nobles and other Dependants, with Treasures, in the Taq [Fortress], on the top of Darband-e Kūlā at the road to Ᾱrēm, which in this time (7th century), called `Aisha Kargili Dez, …” (Ibn Isfandyār, 1320: 176). Also in next pages in the description of the battle of Spahbed Vandād Hūrmazd with the Arab commander who’s named Firāsha [Farrāsheh]: “… And [Firāsha] came to the Ᾱrēm with a massive army, Vandād Hūrmazd had said that; no one would go their way and let them be brave and not count on us, and he himself retired to Kūlā, near which, at Gawāzūnū [Kawāzūno], he constructed two great dykes (dar-band); one above and one below, tight and Firm…” (Ibid: 185), (Ibn Isfandyār, 1905: 128).
Ibn Rasteh considers the base of Spahbed Vandād Hūrmazd in Tabarestān near Damāvand (ibn rasteh, 1365: 178) And Ibn Isfandyār considers his head to be Lapūr (Ibn Esfandiar, 1320: 197). So Ᾱrēm should be in the same range from Savādkūh to Damāvand. On the one hand, with the Archaeological Surveys by Sāmān Tofiq, it became clear that the “Aisha Kargili Dez” is the same as the “Spahbad Khūrshid Cave-Fortress” and in the historical texts it is called “The Tāq” (Tofiq, 1395: 17). At 10 Kilometers from the Pol-e Sefid to the Veresk, the eastern side of the Savādkūh road, Tehran, in the region where the road of Khatirkūh is separated from the above road, the mountainous and strategic remains are left out. This route, which in the past passes through the Doāb Tangeh and the bottom of the Ṭāq Fortress (the Ispahbad Khūrshid Cave-Fortress), After the passing of the maze and the straits of Taqi Yāghi and Naqi Yāghi, reaches a very narrow Abyss, it width is in size to pass a horse and the Sūlā river (Kabir Rūd) is adjacent to this road, in the past, the river destroyed the route with its flood, On the body of the mountain Still remains, the remnants of the stone-plaster`s path and scaffolding. Nearly 2 km, this horrible strait stretches out, until we arrive to Sar Tangeh, where is another Strait in here. At this Point, without any doubt the name of Sar Tangeh Ārim (Ᾱrēm), which is at the beginning of the way Ᾱrēm-Kangelū, is the same as the head of Darband-e Kūlā. The existence of two Strait in the ‘Sar Tangeh’ and ‘Ben Tangeh’ on the top and the bottom; it is an affirmation of Ibn Isfandyār’s narratives of the construction of two Dykes by Spahbed Vandād Hūrmazd, and it seems that this region was named “Kawāzūno” at the era of Ibn Isfandyār. This passage is in fact the same as Darband-e Kūla, and the defeat of the Abbāsid army Caliphs was commanded by Farrāsheh, in the same Strait by hand of Vandād Hūrmazd Qāren Spahbed of Tabarestān.