عنوان مقاله [English]
At the time of Muzaffarids (Ilkhanate), since this area of Iran (Yazd) which was a considerable part of the country, was spared from the deliberate destruction of Mongol people. It can be expected that there have been continuous construction activities in this area since the Seljuk period. Especially according to the specific political field, under the influence of Muzaffaris rulers, a special local style called Muzaffaris style or due to opinion of Donald Wilber, “Yazd School” can be identified and introduced in this field. Among these, the distinctive works of architecture, mosques, monasteries, houses, aqueducts, gardens and historical neighborhoods of Yazd and Meybod, belonging to the same era are of special importance for defining, explaining and interpreting its subject and place urban planning. This research seeks to know the characteristics of Al-Muzaffar tanabi houses and whether they can be classified, as well as the reasons for their emergence? The purpose of this article is to determine the quality of Tanabi in the architecture of Muzaffaris houses in Yazd. In this study, the oldest houses that have been registered and identified so far have been cited along with historical texts. Considering not being enough sample studies in other parts of Iran and the number of historical references to the houses in historical texts and no research in this fields, the importance and position of the Tanabi in architecture of Muzaffaris era has been discussed. In this article, after library studies, which include recognizing Muzaffaris houses in historical texts and Tanabi in other buildings, field studies have been done. In this research tries to recognize the residential architecture in Muzaffaris era by combining interpretive- historical methods and research of examples and relying on library- documentary studies and also to study and analyze the Tanabi. The results show that the Tanabi is seen frequently and in different forms in the historical texts of Ilkhanate Timurid era. Researches show that in the study of historical texts of Yazd, three types of Tanabi have been mentioned. In the houses of Muzaffaris era, Tanabi is a luxurious room at the end of the south porch, which is some examples is decorated with many arraysThe second type was used as a room at the entrance of the gardens and the third type was used as a mansion inside the gardens.Tanabi was one of the first experiences of Iranian architectural spacing inside four-story houses, which is aimed at establishing the concept of a royal residence in the houses.
Keywords: Tanabi (Wind Guard Space), Al-Muzaffar, Architectural, Porch, Courtyard.
From the beginning of the 5th Hijri century until the Al-Muzaffar dynasty, there has been a kind of continuity in the social and economic activities of Yazd, so that it has faced less social vicissitudes and as a result has provided a peaceful environment for urban activities. During this period, there has been prosperity in construction based on the available evidences of local texts. In the historical texts of Yazd, the space of Tanabi is used for houses, gardens, schools, monastery, mosques and mausoleum with different functions. Using Tanabi is not limited to the buildings of Yazd, but this space can be seen in most of the buildings of this period, it can refer to “Rab’e Rashidi Vaqfnameh” which introduces Tanabi as one of three spaces of the monastery. In the dictionary, “Tanabi” has the following meanings: a porch (Iwan) that is inside a large porch, also a large room and the exedra. Tanabi, from the lexical point of view has at least two functional concepts hidden within it. The first concept is tentage spaces that were built with ropes and beams. The second one that is inside Tanabi is prolixity, means to continue and detail, which is also used in the word Tanabi. The prolixity is so important that some consider it the basis of eloquence and they have interpreted the eloquence as aphorism. In the Tanabi building, this concept is found in the form of constructing the building more stretched and expanding as well as detailing the space with decorations. Research in historical texts leads us to an exedra space in architecture, which is called Tanabi. In these texts, the space behind the main porch of the house and the luxurious room above Sabat, the entrance of the garden, as well as the building in the middle of the garden are called Tanabi, It was also determined, matching historical texts with available examples, some of the decorative features of the Tanabi mentioned in the texts can be seen in many houses now. These ornaments include vaulting of Tanabi ceiling, Tanabi figuring, carrelage, incornishing and plaster decoration. In this research tries to recognize the residential architecture in Muzaffaris era by combining interpretive- historical methods and research of examples and relying on library- documentary studies and also to study and analyze the Tanabi.
The simplicity and primitiveness of the Tanabi in Al- Muzaffar houses is the reason for their common characteristics and they differed only in the amount of decoration. Tanabi can be mentioned as one of the architectural experiences of residence at that time in creating space, as this space is used in Zoroastrian four-podium houses in this way. A transformation occurs in the plan of four-podium houses by creating a Tanabi space. The same spatial value in four- podium houses smoothes the construction of the Tanabi, and since this construction is accompanied by decoration and ornament; therefore, it is placed behind a high porch. Strengthening the linear structure of the house by construction of Tanabi and placing a heavy spatial weight at its end will expand the plan in line with the previous one. Making a Tanabi at the end of the porch is also for more energy efficiency. Creating a small room of Tanabi behind the porch that directs the cool breeze down like a box against the wind, causes the air to be drown into it through the door or Tanabi hole and creates a pleasant atmosphere. The architect helps its spatial circulation in two ways by sucking the wind of the porch into the Tanabi: first by planning a door or hole at the end of the Tanabi and the other by connecting the Tanabi with the rooms on both sides of the porch and creating air circulation. Therefore, one of the reasons for using Tanabi is the need for a favorable space and sometimes creating an aristocratic atmosphere. Of course, solving the structural problems of the porch and creating movement and rotation in the spaces around the porch has also been effective in its construction
Researches show that in the study of historical texts of Yazd, three types of Tanabi have been mentioned. In the houses of Muzaffaris era, Tanabi is a luxurious room at the end of the south porch, which is some examples is decorated with many arraysThe second type was used as a room at the entrance of the gardens and the third type was used as a mansion inside the gardens.It was determined, after comparative studies between available examples, that in houses of Yazd during Al-Muzaffar era, the Tanabi was usually the most valuable space and the sitting place in houses, this space is located at the end of the linear axis of house and usually behind the main porch, and the porch protects the Tanabi like a shield. In these houses, Tanabi was made in the form of a room behind the south Soffe. Along with its stretched and long podium in front of it, this Tanabi is considered one of the main factors of Al- Muzaffar house. These two spaces were located in shadow environment and there was a small yard in front of them. In many houses of Al-Muzaffar era in Yazd district, this pattern can be seen.